For the next two decades the NAWSA worked as a nonpartisan organization focused on gaining the vote in states, although managerial problems and a lack of coordination initially limited its success. The first state to grant women complete voting rights was Wyoming in 1869. Three other western states—Colorado (1893), Utah (1896), and Idaho (1896)—followed shortly after NAWSA was founded. But before 1910 only these four states allowed women to vote. “Why the West first?” remains a contested question. Some scholars suggest that the West proved to be more progressive in extending the vote to women, in part, because there were so few of them on the frontier. Granting women political rights was intended to bring more women westward and to boost the population. Others suggest that women had long played nontraditional roles on the hardscrabble frontier and were accorded a more equal status by men. Still others find that political expediency by territorial officials played a role. They do, however, agree that western women also organized themselves effectively to win the right.7
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Despite the new momentum, however, some reformers were impatient with the pace of change. In 1913 Alice Paul, a young Quaker activist who had experience in the English suffrage movement, formed the rival Congressional Union, later named the National Woman’s Party.8 Paul’s group freely adopted the more militant tactics of its English counterparts, picketing and conducting mass rallies and marches to raise public awareness and support. Embracing a more confrontational style, Paul drew a younger generation of women to her movement, helped resuscitate the push for a federal equal rights amendment, and relentlessly attacked the Democratic administration of President Woodrow Wilson for obstructing the extension of the vote to women.
Women in the 1920's - American Historama
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There was much criticism of Black and Tan activities in Britain too, especially from organisations such as the Irish Self-Determination League. The League had been founded in London in 1919, and its purpose was, as its name suggested, to further the cause of self-determination for the Irish people. Its activities were ostensibly confined to fund-raising and the distribution of Sinn Féin propaganda (2). However, many of its members sought to take more direct action through other organisations such as the IRA. Although initially hesitant, towards the end of 1920 IRA Headquarters in Dublin decided to extend the war to the British mainland. Rory O'Connor, the so-called "Director of Engineering" of the IRA became, in effect, Director of Operations in Great Britain (2). One of the first targets to be hit was Liverpool Docks, where 20 large warehouses were attacked by arsonists on 20th November 1920 (2). Nine days later there was a large explosion and fire near London Bridge (3). Other activities included seizing the passports and tickets of Irish emigrants newly-arrived in Liverpool on their way to America, so that they would be forced to return to Ireland (2). A similar campaign of intimidating potential emigres was also carried out in Ireland.
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As now, such reprisals were widely reported in the press, and led to condemnation at home and abroad. The Archbishop of Canterbury, speaking in the House of Lords, called for the Government to provide detailed information about incidents in Ireland, as he could not "acquiesce in the policy of calling in devils to cast out devils." One particularly vehement critic was Daniel Mannix, the Irish-born Archbishop of Melbourne. In an ill-conceived attempt to prevent him from addressing meetings in Ireland the British Government sent a destroyer to intercept the ferry Baltic in the Irish Sea. The Archbishop was removed from the ferry and dumped in Penzance. This did not prevent him from addressing meetings in England, (including one at St James's Hall in Newcastle on 1st December 1920), where his propaganda value was actually much greater.
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The struggle was vicious and bloody. The IRA operated a guerilla campaign, with attacks upon individuals and small groups of RIC and Black and Tans, and the murder of "informers". Raids upon economic targets such as banks provided much needed funds. In response, the RIC, aided by the Black and Tans, hit back in the only manner then known for dealing with guerilla activities - intelligence-based arrests backed up by general reprisals against the civilian population. "Official" reprisals, (those approved in writing by senior commanders) included arrests and the blowing-up of houses suspected to be connected to IRA activities. (Observers of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict might conclude that anti-guerilla tactics have not progressed much further since then). Unfortunately for the British Government, and the largely innocent Irish population, most reprisals were of an unofficial nature, and involved gangs of drunken and out of control Tans or Auxiliaries going on an orgy of looting and arson. The destruction of a large part of Cork city centre on 11th December 1920 was a typical example. (Following a hasty secret enquiry the Auxiliaries responsible for this incident were withdrawn to Dublin, but in a show of bravado took to wearing burned corks in their Glengarry bonnets).