xxii CONTENTS Dental Caries, 61 Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, 62 Obesity, 64 Skeletal Health, 66 Summary, 66 References, 664 A MODEL FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOLERABLE UPPER INTAKE LEVELS 84 Background, 84 A Model for the Derivation of Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, 85 Risk Assessment and Food Safety, 86 Application of the Risk Assessment Model to Nutrients, 91 Steps in the Development of the Tolerable Upper Intake Level, 94 Intake Assessment, 104 Risk Characterization, 104 References, 1055 ENERGY 107 Summary, 107 Background Information, 108 Selection of Indicators for Estimating the Requirement for Energy, 117 Factors Affecting Energy Expenditure and Requirements, 131 Approach Used to Determine Total Energy Expenditure, 151 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 164 Adverse Effects of Overconsumption of Energy, 223 Research Recommendations, 225 References, 2406 DIETARY CARBOHYDRATES: SUGARS AND STARCHES 265 Summary, 265 Background Information, 265 Evidence Considered for Estimating the Average Requirement for Carbohydrate, 277 Findings by Life Stage and Gender Group, 280 Intake of Carbohydrates, 294 Adverse Effects of Overconsumption, 295 Research Recommendations, 323 References, 324
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The following is a table of reference values for adults for laboratory tests commonly ordered at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and recorded in the Case Records. The table revises the most recently published data (Normal Reference Laboratory Values. N Engl J Med 1998;339:1063-72). Laboratory values are expressed in the units used at the MGH and the units of the Système International d'Unités (SI units). The table is not intended to provide a comprehensive review of reference values, since this information is widely available in standard textbooks. To avoid suggesting an endorsement of commercial products by the hospital or the . . .
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Preface This report is one in a series that presents a comprehensive set ofreference values for nutrient intakes for healthy U.S. and Canadian indi-viduals and populations. It is a product of the Food and Nutrition Boardof the Institute of Medicine (IOM), working in cooperation with Canadianscientists. The report establishes a set of reference values for dietary energy,carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acidsto expand and replace previously published Recommended Dietary Allow-ances (RDAs) and Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) for the UnitedStates and Canada, respectively. Close attention was given throughout thereport to the evidence relating macronutrient intakes to risk reduction ofchronic disease and to amounts needed to maintain health. Thus, thereport includes guidelines for partitioning energy sources (AcceptableMacronutrient Distribution Ranges) compatible with decreasing risks ofvarious chronic diseases. It also provides a definition for dietary fiber. The groups responsible for developing this report, the Panel onMacronutrients, the Panel on the Definition of Dietary Fiber, the Sub-committee on Upper Reference Levels of Nutrients (UL Subcommittee),the Subcommittee on Interpretation and Uses of Dietary Reference Intakes(Uses Subcommittee), and the Standing Committee on the Scientific Evalua-tion of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI Committee), have analyzed theevidence on risks and beneficial effects of nutrients and other food com-ponents included in this review. Although all reference values are based on data, available data wereoften sparse or drawn from studies with significant limitations in address- xv
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