One of the most important results of modern transportation systems relative to rural land use is that, while still important, distance from an urban center or market is now often less important than other locational attributes such as soils, available labor, climate, regulatory climate, and livability. Thus, as Theodor Brinkmann predicted, the principle of comparative advantage is becoming increasingly important as the importance of friction of distance (the effort or costs associated with moving, people, goods, services, and ideas over the face of the earth) is diminished. (Brinkmann, T. (1935) Theodor Brinkmann’s Economics of the Farm Business, translated by E.T. Benedict. Berkeley: University of California Press – reference as found in Conkling E., and Yeates, M. (1976) Man’s Economic Environment, McGraw–Hill, New York). (Brinkmann was a German professor of agriculture). For example, in the last years of the 19th century when the city of Flagstaff, Arizona was founded, local farmers provided fresh milk, eggs, and vegetables to people in the community. They did this even though Flagstaff is situated at 7,000 feet above sea level (2,134 meters) and therefore experiences a very short growing season. Additionally, most of the precipitation in the area falls as snow in the winter, and there are no streams in the immediate vicinity to supply irrigation. Thus, crops were poor, but produce prices were high because local consumers had no other suppliers available. These farmers did not get rich, but some of them made a decent living. This was true because in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Flagstaff was relatively isolated from the rest of the world (in other words, it lacked connectivity and accessibility).
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Of course, there are differences in normative competence among thoseabove this threshold. But Mill's account of representative democracytracks these further differences in terms of the weight,rather than the scope, of the franchise (CRG 473).Differences in normative competence above this threshold should affectthe comparative weight of one's vote. This scheme of weighted votingtakes the form of a system of plural votes (CRG 467–81; alsosee “Parliamentary Reform” 322–28). Mill emphaticallyrejects property qualifications as suitable proxies for normativecompetence (CRG 474; “Parliamentary Reform” 325)and insists on educational qualifications.
Using the principle of comparative advantage, explain …
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Defending Against Skeptics:
The True Meaning and Intuition of the Theory of Comparative Advantage Many people who learn about the theory of comparative advantage quickly convince themselves that its ability to describe the real world is extremely limited, if not non-existent.
Comparative judgment: 21st century assessment | The …
It is proper to state that I forego any advantage which could bederived to my argument from the idea of abstract right as a thingindependent of utility. I regard utility as the ultimate appeal on allethical questions; but it must be utility in the largest sense,grounded on the permanent interests of man as a progressive being.(OL I 11)
Jan 19, 2011 · Exam Review Blog Posts
By the 1930s, improved roads and rail lines connected Flagstaff to the fertile Verde Valley situated a few miles to the south. Verde Valley farmers, with adequate water and a longer growing season, could grow far better and more reliable crops than Flagstaff producers. Therefore, as the prices for fresh vegetables dropped because of the influx of fresh produce from lower elevations, Flagstaff farmers tried other crops. For a while they were able to make a little money (very little) growing pinto beans, but the harsh natural conditions of the region soon made commercial agriculture almost impossible in the fields around Flagstaff. In the 1920s, around thirty thousand acres in Northern Arizona were under cultivation. Currently, there are no substantial commercial farms in the Flagstaff area. That is because, without spatial isolation, the highlands of Northern Arizona do not have a comparative advantage for cultivation agriculture.
Those who understand it are the sheep, almost exclusively economists
It [impartiality] is involved in the very meaning of Utility, or theGreatest-Happiness Principle. That principle is a mere form of wordswithout rational signification, unless one person's happiness, supposedequal in degree (with the proper allowance made for kind), is countedfor exactly as much as another's. Those conditions being supplied,Bentham's dictum ‘everybody to count for one, nobody for morethan one,’ might be written under the principle of utility as anexplanatory commentary. The equal claim of everybody to happiness inthe estimation of the moralist and the legislator involves an equalclaim to all the means of happiness …. And hence all socialinequalities which have ceased to be considered expedient, assume thecharacter not of simple inexpediency, but of injustice. The entirehistory of social improvement has been a series of transitions, bywhich one custom or institution after another, from being supposed aprimary necessity of social existence, has passed into the rank ofuniversally stigmatized injustice and tyranny. So it has been with thedistinctions of slaves and freemen, nobles and serfs, patricians andplebeians; and so it will be, and in part already is, with thearistocracies of colour, race, and sex. (V 36)