If we look outside of Utilitarianism we can find evenclearer evidence of Mill's doubts about psychological egoism andhedonism. In a note to his edition of James Mill's Analysis of thePhenomena of the Human Mind (1869) John Stuart Mill diagnoses apossible equivocation in his father's doctrine.
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John Stuart Mill opens his utilitarian postulation by asserting that ethical statements cannot be subjected to scientific or mathematical provability (West 23)....
Two well-known figures are Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill.
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Adam Smith (18th Century), John Stuart Mill (19th Century), and Karl Marx (19th Century) are of the same cloth, but in modern terms their community is referenced as a government, and they each have their own distinct opinions on the 'drive' instilled within human nature that shape their personal economic theories....
Mill, John Stuart | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Civilized men, unlike savages, have clustered in great and fixed concentrations, acted together in large bodies for common purposes, and proceeded from one material achievement to another. They have created populous cities, developed specialized industries, accepted fully the division of labour, expanded channels of trade, improvised techniques of production, and applied science to the cultivation of the soil. Thus they have augmented their material comforts and satisfactions as well as their pleasures in social intercourse. Mill welcomed the general results of this onward thrust of civilization, but was disturbed by some of its features, and especially by the passing of power increasingly from individuals and small groups of individuals to the masses, whose importance grew while that of individuals shrank. The characteristic product of modern material civilization has been a mass society, which Mill no less than Tocqueville feared. “When the masses become powerful,” he wrote, “an individual, or a small band of individuals, can accomplish nothing considerable except by influencing the masses; and to do this becomes daily more difficult, from the constantly increasing number of those who are vying with one another to attract public attention” (126).
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We have focused so far on understanding Mill's version ofutilitarianism, especially his conceptions of happiness and duty. Nowwe should consider his justification of utilitarianism, which he offersin his discussion of the “proof” of the principle ofutility in Chapter IV. Mill claims that the utilitarian must claim thathappiness is the one and only thing desirable in itself (IV 2). Heclaims that the only proof of desirability is desire and proceeds toargue that happiness is the one and only thing desired. He argues thata person does desire his own happiness for its own sake and that,therefore, happiness as such is desired by and desirable for its ownsake for humanity as a whole (“The aggregate of allpersons”) (IV 3). He then turns to defend the claim thathappiness is the only thing desirable in itself, by arguing thatapparent counterexamples (e.g., desires for virtue for its own sake)are not inconsistent with his claim (IV 5–8).
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Because this account of duty defines the rightness and wrongness ofan act, not in terms of its utility, as act utilitarianism does, but interms of the utility of applying sanctions to the conduct, it is anindirect form of utilitarianism. Because justice is a species of duty,it inherits this indirect character (also see Lyons 1994). Because itmakes the deontic status of conduct depend upon the utility ofsanctioning that conduct in some way, we might call this conception ofduty, justice, and rights sanction utilitarianism. Becausesanction utilitarianism is a species of indirect utilitarianism, it isinconsistent with act utilitarianism. The introduction of indirectutilitarian ideas in Chapter V of Utilitarianism into anaccount of utilitarianism that otherwise looks act utilitarian revealsa fundamental tension in Mill's thought about duty.