Underground Railroad - Wikipedia

While an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 freedom seekers entered Canada during the last decades of enslavement in the US, the decade 1850­­–60 alone saw 15,000 to 20,000 fugitives reach the when it became the main terminus of the Underground Railroad. The newcomers migrated to various parts of what is now Ontario, including , Buxton, , , , Sandwich (now part of Windsor), , , , and , as well as other regions of British North America such as , and . During this mass migration, contributed significantly to building strong communities and to the development of the provinces in which they lived and worked.

The Underground Railroad did not gain that name until around 1830 (Donald - ).
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Through the art of song, coded messages were passed along that detailed the escape paths of the Underground Railroad, where two of the most common hymns were, "Swing Low, Sweet Chariot," or "Follow the Drinking Gourd"....


The escape network was not literally underground nor a railroad

The Underground Railroad helped move hundreds of slaves to the north each year.
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Early African Canadian settlers were productive and innovative citizens. They cleared and cultivated the land, built homes and raised families. Black persons established a range of religious, educational, social and cultural institutions, political groups and community-building organizations. They founded churches, schools, benevolent societies, fraternal organizations and two newspapers (see ). During the era of the Underground Railroad, Black men and women possessed and contributed a wide range of skills and abilities. They operated various businesses such as grocery stores, ladies boutiques and hat shops, blacksmith shops, a saw company, an ice company, livery stables, pharmacies, herbal treatment services, and carpentry businesses, as well as Toronto’s first taxi company. African Canadians held an array of occupations to support their families and meet the needs of their local communities — including barbers and hairdressers, teachers, farmers, waiters, carpenters, washerwomen, carters, domestic servants, whitewashers, church ministers, farmers, rope makers, dressmakers, blacksmiths, coopers, mariners and dockside workers. Others pursued professions such as and .


Underground Railroad - Garrett - Still - Tubman

The Underground Railroad was a secret network of abolitionists who helped African Americans escape from enslavement in the American South to free Northern states or to Canada. It was the largest anti-slavery freedom movement in North America, having brought between 30,000 and 40,000 fugitives to British North America (Canada).

The Underground Railroad – America in Class – …

One of the symbols that were utilized by the conductors to identify which homes were acting as safe-houses along the lines of the Underground Railroad were lanterns, which were lit and placed outside of the each station.

The Underground Railroad Chapter 2: Georgia ..

These slaves fought for their existence and for their cultural heritage with the help of many people and places along the path we now call the Underground Railroad....

The Ohio Valley and the Underground Railroad | …

Due to its distance from free states in the North and British Canada, the Deep South is not usually a part of discussions of the Underground Railroad....