Another important driver of the costs associated with generating genome sequences relates to data quality. That quality is heavily dependent upon the average number of times each base in the genome is actually 'read' during the sequencing process. During the Human Genome Project (HGP), the typical levels of quality considered were: (1) 'draft sequence' (covering ~90% of the genome at ~99.9% accuracy); and (2) 'finished sequence' (covering >95% of the genome at ~99.99% accuracy). Producing truly high-quality 'finished' sequence by this definition is very expensive; of note, the process of 'sequence finishing' is very labor-intensive and is thus associated with high costs. In fact, most human genome sequences produced today are 'draft sequences' (sometimes above and sometimes below the accuracy defined above).
Since the whole genome sequence of the pig will soon be available, comparative studies with the completed human genome, and other mammalian genomes having moderate to deep genome coverage (i.e. cow, horse, dog, mouse, rat and chimpanzee) will yield new information about the pig genome evolution. In the next decade, by utilizing approaches of comparative genomics, it will be possible to effectively select animals for agricultural purposes, create appropriate biodiversity conservation programs and create pig models for medical research. The utility of the pig in biomedical research affords many advantages compared with other animals such as mouse and rat i.e. (i) its similar size to humans (ii) sharing high similarities with human both anatomically and physiologically; and (iii) the ability to target gene manipulation and clone using nuclear transfer.
History of Biotech: 25 Years of The Human Genome Project
The HGP then proceeded to refine the 'draft' and produce a 'finished' human genome sequence (as described above), which was achieved by 2003. The estimated cost for advancing the 'draft' human genome sequence to the 'finished' sequence is ~ worldwide. Of note, generating the final human genome sequence by the HGP also relied on the sequences of small targeted regions of the human genome that were generated before the HGP's main production-sequencing phase; it is impossible to estimate the costs associated with these various other genome-sequencing efforts, but they likely total in the tens of millions of dollars.
RFA-RM-18-012: Rodent Testing Centers for Development …
Darwin (1859) clearly believed both nature and artificial selection shaped breeds, “The key (to domestic breeding) is man's power to accumulative selection: nature gives successive variations; man adds them up in certain directions useful to him” . Human and novel environmental pressures during pig domestication have been principally responsible for the generation of inter-breed genetically variation and for the formation of many unique breeds. Domestic pig diversity has evolved over millions of years through the processes of natural and artificial selections forming and stabilizing each of the species used in food and agriculture. Over the more recent millennia, interactions between environmental and human selection have led to the development of genetically distinct breeds. Artificial selection in a targeted gene is similar to a more severe bottleneck that removes most of the genetic variation from a targeted locus.
From Whom: Ape-like Primates or Fully Human People
The deliverables of the SCGE program will be a collection of tools, methods, data, and best practices that will accelerate development and testing of new treatments for many diseases, i.e., the SCGE Toolkit for Therapeutic Genome Editing or SCGE Toolkit. The SCGE program will involve collaborative research by a partnership of genome editing experts, delivery systems experts, animal model creators and assay developers to produce validated techniques and knowledge through exchange of expertise, information and research tools. Awardees from all five SCGE program components will form a consortium, governed by a steering committee of investigators and NIH staff that will develop consensus policies and procedures for Consortium-wide activities such as data and resource sharing. Contingent on availability of funds, the NIH plans a future funding opportunity for Large Animal Testing Centers that will use either pigs or non-human primates, including wild-type animals as well as reporter animals developed by RFA-RM-18-013, to assess efficacy and safety of in vivo genome editing and delivery technologies. It is expected that all awardees will collaborate to accelerate the translation of genome editing technologies into treatments for human disease.
DNA 101 - Blair DNA Project - Introduction
Furthermore, it appears as though extraterrestrials living among the human population may work in pairs, a kind of buddy system that would make sense in terms of ensuring safety and communications with the home world if an emergency ever occurred.