The characteristic Greek religion was a rather primitive
affair, derived from animist belief in the spirits of nature elevated into a
complex set of gods and goddesses who were seen as interfering in human life.
The Greeks thus had a creator or father god, Zeus, who presided over an unruly
assemblage of divinities whose functions ranged from regulating the daily
passage of the sun (Apollo) or the oceans (Poseidon) to inspiring war or human
love and beauty.
With the decline of the city-states, however, and the rise
of more general Hellenistic forms in which community art played a lesser role,
the cultural gaps stood out in sharper relief.
Hellenistic Culture During And After Alexander
Greek intellectual and artistic life was not a constant.
Olympians referred to the gods who resided in Olympus
Men took part, began with prayers and libation to gods, played games (dice or kottabos), entertainment
pentathlon, athletic contests
important role in Greek life, literature=religion
12 gods: Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Hestia, Demeter, Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Artemis, Athena, Hephaestus, Hermes
behaved as mortals did except they were superhuman, strong, and immortality
Each polis had one Olympian as guardian deity and worshiped god, athletic contest
worshiped lesser deities, human heroes
Civic virtue: worshiping state deities, public services, fighting for state
Private mortality: do good to friends and harm enemies
6th century BC influence of Apollo at Delphi became great
priests of Apollo preached moderation, central in Greek mortality and in Greek literature
Dionysus, god of nature and fertility, attend to human fears, hopes, and passions
great changes through Greek world reflected in poetry of 6th century BC
Theognis of Megara
interesting poet of century from political point
aristocrat who lived through tyranny, chaotic/violent democracy, and oligarchy restored order and ended aristocracy
divided everyone into two classes
noble and the base
not allowed to mingle with other classes
These ideas remained throughout next century and influenced later thinkers, Plato
By: Leona Chow & Hannah Kim
Topics to talk About:
About 700-500 B.C.
Often rose to power because of military or support from hoplites.
Population growth in city dwellers
Improvement of drainage system, care for water supply, and building of city walls, etc.
The Major States
Life in Archaic Greece
Expansion of the Greek World: Life in Ancient Greece
Expansion of the Greek World
Eighth sixth century B.C.