We used Danish population-based registries to study the effects of family history, nonfamilial risk factors, and their interactions on the risk of schizophrenia.
Family and friends can also help patients set realistic goals and regain their ability to function in the world. Each step toward these goals should be small enough to be attainable, and the patient should pursue them in an atmosphere of support. People with a mental illness who are pressured and criticized usually regress and their symptoms worsen. Telling them what they are doing right is the best way to help them move forward.
25. Jablensky A, Eaton WW. Schizophrenia. ;1:-
The prevalence of schizophrenia is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The difference has been ascribed to selective migration from rural to urban areas before the onset of schizophrenia, but this hypothesis does not explain our finding of a higher risk among people born in urban areas. Other possible explanations include increased exposure to infections during pregnancy and childhood because of more crowded living conditions or more perinatal complications in urban areas. Alternatively, one could hypothesize that persons with an unexpressed genetic predisposition for schizophrenia are more likely to migrate to urban areas, but a family history of schizophrenia does not explain or affect the urban–rural differences we observed. Furthermore, we estimated that if the risk of schizophrenia for persons born in the capital or its suburbs as compared with the risk for those born elsewhere in Denmark (relative risk, 1.74) could be explained by the presence of undiagnosed schizophrenia in parents, 9.5 percent of the 435,124 children who were born in the capital or its suburbs must have had a parent who transmitted a genetic risk equal to that transmitted by a parent with diagnosed schizophrenia. This proportion seems unrealistically high. Finally, differences in the availability of psychiatric services might explain urban–rural differences. This seems unlikely, however, because distances are small in Denmark, services are free, and place of birth, not place of residence, was the variable studied.
History of Schizophrenia Research
The effect of season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia was of the expected magnitude and had the expected periods of maximal risk (February and March) and minimal risk (August and September). We replicated a previous finding that there was no interaction between season of birth and family history of schizophrenia. However, we did not replicate a previous finding that the association between winter birth and schizophrenia occurred only among persons born in urban areas. Lewis suggested that an association between the season of birth and schizophrenia is a methodologic artifact due to the so-called age–incidence effect — that is, persons born in January are older than those born later in the year within the same age category and thus have spent more time at risk for schizophrenia. This concern was not relevant to our cohort study, however, since all age-specific person–years were calculated exactly for each person.
A list of 20 famous people with Schizophrenia
An interesting finding was the highly increased risk of schizophrenia in persons born to Danish women outside Denmark. This increase is probably not due to a tendency for mentally ill parents to leave the country temporarily, since the mothers and fathers of these persons did not have an increased likelihood of having schizophrenia. A possible explanation is the theory proposed by Wessely et al. These authors reported an increased risk of schizophrenia in second-generation black Caribbean immigrants living in London and suggested that it could be explained by maternal exposure to infective agents uncommon in their country of origin.
What is Schizophrenia? - Living With Schizophrenia
We found a twofold increase in the risk of schizophrenia among persons with unknown fathers as compared with persons with known fathers without schizophrenia. This difference might be explained by the lower socioeconomic status of the mothers of these offspring or by difficulties in growing up in a family without a father. If the difference was due to a higher proportion of cases of schizophrenia among unknown fathers, at least 16 percent of the fathers of the 46,766 offspring with unknown fathers must have had schizophrenia. Such a large proportion of unknown fathers with schizophrenia is highly unlikely, since it is of the same order of magnitude as the total number of men hospitalized during the study period for schizophrenia in Denmark. We must conclude that there is no strong empirical evidence to support any of these hypotheses, although the finding itself seems to be robust.