In 1551 the council reassembled at Trent, summoned by Pope Julius III (1550 55). Decrees were passed on three of the sacraments: The Eucharist, penance, and extreme unction. The Eucharist was declared to be the most excellent sacrament. Though some members favored granting the cup to the laity, it was officially declared that the entire sacrament is present in the bread. The decree also carried a reaffirmation of the doctrine of transubstantiation. The treatment of penance and extreme unction also reaffirmed the traditional positions.
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In spite of the fact that the penal laws were only rarely enforced and Protestant and Catholic neighbours generally lived together in peace in their local communities, the great Catholic families in England were declining in number throughout the Restoration period. The prime contributing factor to this decline was the social pressure to be a Protestant in order to take part in the national political life of the country. For this reason, many of the heirs of prominent Catholic families, such as the Marquis of Worcester, the Marquis of Winchester and the Earl of Shrewsbury, joined the Anglican church in the 1660's and the 1670's. It was mainly the minor peers or gentry, who did not wish to take part in English political life, who retained their Catholic faith.
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Pius V lost no time in carrying out the disciplinary decrees of the Council of Trent as far as he could, particularly in Rome. Cardinals, bishops, and priests were recalled to their duties, and the reorganization of the Curia was undertakenin an effort to stamp out such abuses as simony and nepotism. The streets of Rome were cleared of prostitutes. The pope saw to the publication of the Roman Missal and Catechism ordered by the council. He also published a Roman Breviary, as well as the Summa theologiae of Thomas Aquinas, whom he made a Doctor of the Church in 1567. He ordered the universities to teach Thomism exclusively.
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In England, despite the fact that Henry VIII was given the title Defender of the Faith by the Holy See for a book published under his name, the monarch was anything but a theologian, and the Reformation in England was not theological in origin. Henry’s wife Catherine of Aragon gave him no male heirs. Wishing to have his marriage annulled, but refused by the Church, he turned to the English clergy with the same request and subsequently declared himself head of the church in England. Henry’s Six Articles, promulgated in 1539, kept the essentials of the Catholic faith (even though failure to take the Act of Supremacy recognizing Henry’s headship of the church led most often to execution). it was not until his death that Calvinistic theology began to find its way into the Book of Common Prayer. When Henry’s daughter Mary Tudor became monarch in 1553, she briefly restored Catholicism and carried out over two hundred executions of Protestant heretics. Upon the accession of her half-sister Elizabeth (the daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn), Anglicanism was officially established as the state religion and the Thirty-nine Articles spelled out the particulars of belief. They did not rid the Church of England of as many vestiges of Romanism as some would have liked. It seemed to be
In the sixteenth century the Roman church undertook to reform itself
The Church Responds
The Church was initially slow to respond
to the reformer's criticisms of corrupt practices, but within a few years, the Church had created a strong response.
The Council of Trent
Result of Counter Reformation-Widespread Intolerance
Dear Luther, Calvin, Tyndale, & Erasmus,
founded in 1534; also known as the "Society of Jesus"
The Jesuits' Influence
helped end some corruption within Catholic Church