That complements the version of moral duty given above.

In his analysis of beauty, Kant states that beauty is morality.

Whether he allows that or not, however, we should already be able to see that universalization alone underdetermines the circumstances and requirements of morality.

This creates questions about what types of relationships between people are moral.

Chesterton quoted, “I say that a man must be certain of his morality for the simple reason that he has to suffer for it,” and although I do not completely understood my own morality, I know I did not create it alone.

Ethics vs. Morality - Business Ethics Speaker

It’s not just the content of our moral judgments that is often questionable, but the way we arrive at them. We like to think that when we have a conviction, there are good reasons that drove us to adopt it. That is why an older approach to moral psychology, led by Jean Piaget and Lawrence Kohlberg, tried to document the lines of reasoning that guided people to moral conclusions. But consider these situations, originally devised by the psychologist Jonathan Haidt:

Government officials were caught in an embezzlement scandal

When people pondered the dilemmas that required killing someone with their bare hands, several networks in their brains lighted up. One, which included the medial (inward-facing) parts of the frontal lobes, has been implicated in emotions about other people. A second, the dorsolateral (upper and outer-facing) surface of the frontal lobes, has been implicated in ongoing mental computation (including nonmoral reasoning, like deciding whether to get somewhere by plane or train). And a third region, the anterior cingulate cortex (an evolutionarily ancient strip lying at the base of the inner surface of each cerebral hemisphere), registers a conflict between an urge coming from one part of the brain and an advisory coming from another.

Her behavior caused a scandal at school

To this end, Khatchadourian says that even forms of terrorism that are designed to bring about a moral good are wrong because of the methods used to achieve that good.

There was never a hint of scandal during her time in office

Likely candidates for Blue and Orange Morality include , who follow rules of their own making; that are beyond comprehension; the more exotic ; , when and/or .


The findings of trolleyology — complex, instinctive and worldwide moral intuitions — led Hauser and John Mikhail (a legal scholar) to revive an analogy from the philosopher John Rawls between the moral sense and language. According to , we are born with a “universal grammar” that forces us to analyze speech in terms of its grammatical structure, with no conscious awareness of the rules in play. By analogy, we are born with a universal moral grammar that forces us to analyze human action in terms of its moral structure, with just as little awareness.