Iron technology first appears in the African continent in the 1st millennium , and the term Iron Age is generally used, certainly south of the Sahara, to describe iron-using communities in Africa until the modern historical era. It thus covers a very long period of time and is used to describe a great variety of different societies, from simple village-based farmers and nomadic pastoralists to great empires with centralized political and economic control. The diversity of subsidence practices that developed across Africa during the Iron Age is remarkable. In many parts of the continent, particularly in the east and south, a distinction is made between the Early and the Later Iron Age, a time of sociocultural and economic change with increasing urbanization and population growth allied with increasing social complexity evident in the archaeological record. In the north of Africa, and in parts of the west, the areas more closely connected with Europe and Asia, the term medieval is commonly used to describe Later Iron Age periods. In southern Africa the term “iron-using” is increasingly being used in preference to the term “Iron Age.” In much of the continent archaeology provides the only evidence for Iron Age societies, though for North Africa, being part of the classical world, there is some historical evidence. African iron technology was extremely varied, with many distinct localized technologies evolving over the centuries. Traditional iron industries continued in many areas into the beginning of the 20th century, enabling ethnographers, archaeologists, and metallurgists to record either actual smelts or, latterly, recreations of smelts by those who had participated in their youth. This wealth of data has been exploited by archaeologists seeking to understand the Iron Age, and theories concerning the origins and spread of ironworking and the sociocultural impact it had are hotly debated. A further dimension has been added to the study of these early periods by the work of historical linguists who have traced the evolution of various African languages over time. In particular, the spread of the Bantu languages across eastern and southern Africa in the Early Iron Age has resulted in significant debate. The Iron Age was a period of developing craft specialization, and the connection between material culture and ethnicity and the validity of exploring such issues using linguistic and archaeological material has long been a major concern. The relationship between ceramic styles and social groups, in particular, has been the focus of very valuable research.
That is why this report calls for sustainable health systems, even if it is unlikely, according to the World Bank, that developing countries will be able in the near future to finance their own national systems from their tax revenue. Non-profit-making systems with mixed financing from state resources, international support and public participation are the best way to meet the immense challenge posed by health care in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2006, international aid covered 0.25 to 0.5 % of health budgets in this region. Yet, even with this level of aid, the problem remains vast. First of all, because the global financial crisis does not encourage European countries to keep their promises, in other words to give at least 0.7 % of GDP in development assistance by 2010. Secondly, because traditionally health is not a priority. For example, aid for health amounts to only half of the amount allocated to education. While the importance of this latter sector should not be underestimated, this disparity tells its own story. Finally, because the problem still remains of how funding is to be targeted.
and values of Sub-Saharan Africans have significant impact ..
2. Points to the influence on the economy of the sub-Saharan countries of external factors such as international market rules, cooperation policies, the financial crisis, climate change, and the policies pursued by major pharmaceutical companies and major international financial institutions;
Democratic Republic of Congo Overview - World Bank …
It is quite disappointing that after decades of independencemost countries in the sub-Sahara Africa have not made anysignificant change in their IP laws, the laws have remainedoutdated. Some of the major problems facing development in IP lawin Nigeria are enumerated below.
Structural Adjustment—a Major Cause of Poverty — …
The task, then, is to look at the available material for the purpose of ascertaining the evolution of simple indices of nuptiality in recent times. The fertility perspective will dominate, but cannot be exclusive of other concerns. For example, when one examines the fertility implications of recorded changes in nuptiality, the conclusion is that age at marriage has risen in many countries of sub-Saharan Africa, but that this trend appears to
History map, 2500 BC, showing ancient world of Egypt …
As big as the potentials of Intellectual Property Rightsoperation in Africa is, piracy and counterfeiting have become thefactor frustrating its development. Sub-Sahara Africa is indeed abig market with so much potential for growth. The region has notbeen able to achieve maximum potential due to acts of piracy andcounterfeiting. Nigeria remains a gateway to the rest of the regionfor counterfeit products and fake goods are constantly beingoffered alongside genuine goods to unsuspecting and undiscerningconsumers.