Empiricism: A Deficient Distinction Epistemology is the branch of ..

Confusion over this occurs because people do not appreciate that Hume as an , holding that lack of knowledge (the meaning of "Skepticism") does not rule out "reasonable" beliefs.

The second is that reason is superior to experience as a source ofknowledge.
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This argument for the Intuition/Deduction thesis raises additionalquestions which rationalists must answer. Insofar as they maintainthat our knowledge of necessary truths in mathematics or elsewhere byintuition and deduction is substantive knowledge of the externalworld, they owe us an account of this form of necessity. Manyempiricists stand ready to argue that “necessity resides in theway we talk about things, not in the things we talk about”(Quine 1966, p. 174). Similarly, if rationalists claim that ourknowledge in morals is knowledge of an objective form of obligation,they owe us an account of how objective values are part of a world ofapparently valueless facts.


Spinoza, Superior Empiricist more

That Kant's theory is one of empirical realism is difficult to understand and easily forgotten.
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Bacon said that a true science progressed "in a just scale of ascent, and by successive steps not interrupted or broken, we rise from particulars to lesser axioms; and then to middle axioms, one above the other; and last of all to the most general"

Bacon's method required:
(1) accumulating a store of particular empirical observations
(2) from these inductively inferring lesser axioms
(3)from these inductively inferring middle axioms
(3) and then proposing the most general of notions, each in progressive steps.


Philosophy - definition of philosophy by The Free …

Such scruples, however, which may be empiricist in origin, seem to have had little effect on the practice of mathematics and, if taken seriously, would make much of modern mathematics, including , suspect.

phi·los·o·phy (fĭ-lŏs′ə-fē) n

The difference between conceptual meaning and perceptual object must be maintained, even when the empiricist is rejected and mental processes are allowed into the formation of perception.

phi·los·o·phies 1

The antinomical choices between mystical intuitions as intellectual or sensible, of independent or identical objects, of a divine substance (personal or impersonal) or ultimate Emptiness, cannot be resolved on the evidence of mystical knowledge, since the knowledge of different mystics confirms each of these and, as Hume would say, the evidence of one tends to refute the evidence of the other.

Continental Rationalism: The Philosophy of Baruch Spinoza

There, if the mystic is identical to God, who also creates everything else through intellectual intuition, all mystical knowledge will be of the nature of an intellectual intuition.

Spinoza is a much superior philosopher to Descartes.

simplistic generalizations only by recognizing literary practice for what it is, a second-order production of representation-meaning that is open-ended and contradictory precisely because it is based on the subject-form of ideology and the subjective-ideological experience of the world. Literary practice does indeed "dominate" ordinary ideology, but the result is not necessarily oppressive or obfuscatory since ordinary ideology is itself riven with class-based contradictions rooted in objective reality. Literary production is overdetermined by the class struggle, which assigns it a place and a function within the social formation, but literary representation-meaning nevertheless possesses a relative autonomy that cannot be reduced to the disciplinary delusions of knowledge/power. Despite the fact that it is articulated from within a class-based system of power, literary practice may, under certain circumstances, expose as well as legitimize class domination. Literature cannot transcend the subject-form, of course, but precisely because the subject-form is unevenly developed and contradictory, the mechanisms of identification peculiar to the literary text may promote opposition as well as conformity. Finally, literary style, like all discursive practice, is caught up in a network of semantic as well as syntactical relations. By virtue of its semantic elements, literary style has interpellative possibilities that overflow the class-biased grammatical practices that seek to contain them.[] It is Renée Balibar's contribution to have shown how, in the conjuncture of nineteenth-century France, the interpellative character of literary discourse was caught up in a class-based structure of ideological domination in a fashion that her concepts of style and compromise formation illuminate. Her error, which is magnified in the essays of Macherey and Etienne Balibar, is to have demonized and homogenized these phenomena and to have made them the very "essence" of literary practice.