by Hugh Tredennick (Penguin, 1995)

"no man could..." Actually, to the question, "Is there any man," Socrates answers "there is not ( , )." "...I will tell you and the jury." Actually, "you and these others." Again, , Meletus won't answer, so Socrates answers for him.

Hence, we are in principle capable of distinguishing right from wrong on our own.

(Consider, for example, parallel questions with a similar structure:"Do my parents approve of this action because it is right, or is it right because my parents approve of it?" or"Does the College forbid this activity because it is wrong, or is it wrong because the College forbids it?")On the second alternative in each case, actions become right (or wrong) solely because of the authority's approval (or disapproval);its choice, then, has no rational foundation, and it is impossible to attribute laudable moral wisdom to the authority itself.


by Hugh Tredennick (Penguin, 1990)Secondary sources:

Improper conduct, then, can only be a product of our ignorance rather than a symptom of{Gk.

Like the Olympics, the Pythian Games were only held every four years, but the others were held every two years, meaning that victories there were less prestigious.


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When the government of East Germany disappeared, and the files of the Secret Police, the , were opened, it turned out that no less than 25% of the entire country had, at one time or another, voluntarily or involuntarily, been police informers.

Library of Congress Catalog Data: ISSN 1095-5054

to bring Leon from Salamis, that he might be executed." As is so dismally familiar from the 20th century, tyrants begin murdering their political opposition.

.Heraclitus of Ephesus, quoted by Plutarch, 21, 404 E, , G.S.

Now, instead, we have forms of rule that himself called "real despotism." Citizens, indeed, have a final veto through the power of , but few people called to jury duty are aware of what they can do, and most jurors believe the lies that judges instruct them with.

There is something fitting in this.

Like Socrates himself as a , someone must be in a position of authority with both the power and the interest to enforce the law against the abuses and usurpations of other authorities.

This is what happened, and various versions of the were produced.

Indeed, the rule of law has been fundamentally abolished when Congress has the power to write regulations, often retroactively, that have the force of law, "interpret" those themselves, and even judge defendants in their own "administrative law" courts.

Only two survive, Plato's and one by Xenophon.

The tyrants can always say, "Everyone was doing it!" Thus, East German border guards were prosecuted for shooting, under orders, people trying to flee to the West, but their superiors, who ordered the shootings, seem to have escaped largely unscathed.