Code switching denotes the process of speech, sentence or speech composition during which occurs sudden spontaneous switching from one language to another language or dialect and back. Such occurrence indicates the language situation in the Republic. For deduction of the situation and conditions with the presence of which code switching occurs, we put through sociolinguistics research in the Kazakhstan North region (the choice of the region determined by the different ethnic palette that was presented in the abovementioned region). We quizzed 400 ethnic Kazakh people representatives with the dominate Kazakh language and dominate Russian language in the age of 17-30 years. In our study participated representatives of three languages: Kazakh as for native language, Russian and English.
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According to the socio-economic indicators and HDI analysis informed by Harbison and Myers, Kazakhstan has characteristics of both semi-developed (advanced) and partially developed countries. Therefore, Kazakhstan encounters challenges related to human resources, which are common for this category. In fact, there are two major challenges requiring attention. The first is related to the shortages of “high-level” manpower with critical skills and competence, and the second one is related to the redundant or underutilized manpower.
and marriage and fertility in Central Asia: Kazakhstan ..
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Logically, since the Soviet political and socio-economic system was centralized and operated by Moscow, Kazakhstan as well as other former Soviet Union Republics developed a deep socio-economic dependence. Such socio-economic dependence was characterized by a narrow specialization in certain fields of economic activities practiced by each Union Republic. As a result, Kazakhstan successfully developed agricultural sector, animal breeding, mining and natural resources extraction along with oil and gas industry. However, the other sectors of economy in Kazakhstan were underdeveloped or partially developed and depended on other Republics of the Soviet Union.
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The novelty and significance of the proposed overview is that the framework of two economists Harbison and Myers (1964) was applied for analyzing the status of human resources development of Kazakhstan in the context of complex socio-economic societal transformation, which enabled to provide an overview of human resources development from 1991-2015.
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Transitional process to the market economy underlined serious disadvantages of the previous Soviet system. Being rich in natural resources and minerals, Kazakhstan was turned into a raw-materials producing appendage of the Russian Federation. Kazakhstan’s vast territories with diverse flora and fauna were allowed to successfully develop agriculture and animal breeding, mining and heavy industries. In addition, the northern region of Kazakhstan was used for nuclear testing, aerospace experiments and space shuttle launching. Kazakhstan has a well-developed agriculture which specialized mostly in grain (wheat), cotton and livestock. There are also a number of well-established industries such as oil, coal, iron ore, manganese, chromite, lead, zinc, copper, titanium, bauxite, gold, silver, phosphates, sulfur, iron and steel; tractors and other agricultural machinery, electric motors, and construction materials.
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In the modern social and economic environment of Russia, gratitude might be considered an ambiguous phenomenon. It can have different meaning for a person in different contexts and can manifest itself differently as well (that is, as an expression of sincere feelings or as an element of corruption). In this respect it is topical to investigate the system of meanings and relationships that define the semantic space of gratitude. The goal of the study was the investigation and description of the content and structure of the semantic space of the gratitude phenomenon as well as the determination of male, female, age, and ethnic peculiarities of the expression of gratitude. The objective was achieved by using the semantic differential designed by the authors to investigate attitudes toward gratitude. This investigation was carried out with the participation of 184 respondents (Russians, Tatars, Ukrainians, Jews) living in the Russian Federation, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Israel, Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom and identifying themselves as representatives of one of these nationalities. The structural components of gratitude were singled out by means of exploratory factor analysis of the empirical data from the designed semantic differential. Gender, age, and ethnic differences were differentiated by means of Student’s t-test. Gratitude can be represented by material and nonmaterial forms as well as by actions in response to help given. The empirical data allowed us to design the ethnically nonspecified semantic structure of gratitude. During the elaboration of the differential, semantic universals of gratitude, which constitute its psychosemantic content, were distinguished. Peculiarities of attitudes toward gratitude by those in different age and gender groups were revealed. Differences in the degree of manifestation of components of the psychosemantic structure of gratitude related to ethnic characteristics were not discovered. The semantic universals of gratitude are grouped into the components of its semantic structure: intentional, relational, essential, and expressive. These structural elements are present in the representatives of all the nationalities who participated in the study. The men were more likely than the women to demonstrate the instrumental understanding of gratitude. The women were more likely than the men to reflect humanistic ideas of gratitude. The romantic and noble idea of gratitude was dominant in representatives of the younger generation (18-year-olds). The young adults (19-to-25-year-olds) tended to demonstrate social realism to a larger extent than respondents in the other age groups. In respondents who were 26-years-old and above, humanistic assessment and collectivist values with respect to gratitude significantly decreased.