The issue of supervision and monitoring and the concept of "latch key" children is associated with maternalemployment, but only a few studies have examined the actual tie to maternal employment. Nan Crouter, at Penn State,with a sample of children from small communities and rural areas, found no relationship between the mother'semployment status and how well children were monitored. However, she also found that when children wereunmonitored, boys with employed mothers were the ones likely to show negative effects in conduct and school grades. Inour urban sample, we found only one effect of maternal employment on supervision and monitoring: Boys in dual-wageworking class families were more likely to be left unsupervised and unmonitored. Maternal employment was not relatedto supervision and monitoring in middle-class families, in single-mother families, or for working-class girls. Beingleft unsupervised, but monitored by phone, showed no negative effects, but being left unsupervised and unmonitored showed negative effects among lower income children.
Further, four new child care programs were added between 1988 and 1990to look after the children of welfare mothers going to work and other low incomewomen. Expenditures on job training programs increased sharply in the early1990s. The programs emphasized education and basic skills. As a result of all ofthese changes, between 1984 and 1996 the percentage of single mothers workingin an average week increased from 58 percent to 64 percent. Or, looking at anothermeasure, the percentage working at all during the year rose from 72 percent to 82percent. Comparisons with other groups, such as single women without children,married women, and black men, indicate that the increase in single mothers'employment is "a break from historical patterns," the authors write.
Programs for single mothers - LOW ..
In my review of the research, I'm going to start with a summary of the research which has examined the directrelationship between the mother's employment status and child outcomes and then concentrate on the three aspects offamily life that seem to carry the effects: the father's role, the mother's state of well being, and parent-child interactionpatterns. Since findings from my recent study will be reported throughout my talk, I'll give you a brief description of it.
Incentives Increase Work by Single Mothers
So this brings us to the third route by which the mother's employment status can affect outcomes for school-agedchildren --- through differences in childrearing. A number of researchers have suggested that the childrearing dimensionwhich includes encouragement of independence, maturity demands, and autonomy granting is particularly important. Thisis a dimension that can encompass in its extreme overprotection, on the one hand, and neglect on the other. Previousresearch has presented some evidence that employed mothers encourage independence in their children more thannonemployed mothers do. The encouragement of independence is consistent with the situational demands of the dual rolesince it enables the family to function more effectively in the mother's absence. Urie Bronfenbrenner has suggested thatencouraging independence and granting children autonomy may have a negative effect on boys because it increases theinfluence of the peer group which, for boys, is more likely to be counter to adult standards. The encouragement ofindependence and autonomy in girls, on the other hand, would have a positive effect since they are traditionally given toolittle encouragement for independence.
Single Mothers: Working, But Still Poor - Gotham Gazette
Single parents on benefits will be forced to look for work when their youngest child reaches the age of three, or face losing their state hand-outs, under new welfare laws.
Single Mothers: Working, But Still Poor
Many of these mothers have been forced to apply for state assistance, EBT benefits, and other assistance programs, because of sudden unemployment. They are returning to school to better their chances for professional careers. Others are trying to hold down either a full-time or part-time job, care for their children, and attend classes. For these women, the online education options are increasingly attractive as the school will work around their schedule.