The most serious and intense skepticism began in the 19th century when adoration for Shakespeare was at its highest. The detractors believed that the only hard evidence surrounding William Shakespeare from Stratford-upon-Avon described a man from modest beginnings who married young and became successful in real estate. Members of the Shakespeare Oxford Society (founded in 1957) put forth arguments that English aristocrat and poet , the 17th Earl of Oxford, was the true author of the poems and plays of "William Shakespeare." The Oxfordians cite de Vere's extensive knowledge of aristocratic society, his education, and the structural similarities between his poetry and that found in the works attributed to Shakespeare. They contend that William Shakespeare had neither the education nor the literary training to write such eloquent prose and create such rich characters.
8. By the time Verdi revised Macbeth in 1865, he’d seen the play performed several times, in France, Italy and in England. Each time he saw Shakespeare’s play, he took careful notes on staging. He wrote a long and detailed letter to his Parisian publisher, stating how he wished the opera to be staged. For example, he wanted the ghost of Banquo to rise up through a trapdoor in Act II, with a large wound on his head, and stand immobile, staring at Macbeth. He sent plans of where singers should stand in each act. He also wrote at length on the relative importance of the characters, stating that the most prominent roles were those of Macbeth, Lady Macbeth and the witches’ chorus, and that Macduff only ‘becomes a Hero’ at the end of the opera.
Tragic Hero - Definition and Examples | LitCharts
Scant records exist of William's childhood, and virtually none regarding his education. Scholars have surmised that he most likely attended the King's New School, in Stratford, which taught reading, writing and the classics. Being a public official's child, William would have undoubtedly qualified for free tuition. But this uncertainty regarding his education has led some to raise questions about the authorship of his work and even about whether or not William Shakespeare ever existed.
William Shakespeare Biography - Biography
7. Verdi spoke little English and would have read Shakespeare in his native Italian, and read it as literature, rather than seeing it performed onstage. It would have lost some of its original poetry and tragic power in translation. Verdi only saw the play Macbeth staged in 1847, the year of the premiere of the first version of his opera Macbeth. Shakespeare was rarely staged in Italy in the 1840s, and Verdi saw the play in a visit to London, some months after the premiere of his opera.
William Shakespeare - Wikipedia
By 1599, William Shakespeare and his business partners built their own theater on the south bank of the Thames River, which they called the Globe. In 1605, Shakespeare purchased leases of real estate near Stratford for 440 pounds, which doubled in value and earned him 60 pounds a year. This made him an entrepreneur as well as an artist, and scholars believe these investments gave him the time to write his plays uninterrupted.
HAMLET, Act 3, Scene 3 - Shakespeare Navigators
William was the third child of John Shakespeare, a leather merchant, and Mary Arden, a local landed heiress. William had two older sisters, Joan and Judith, and three younger brothers, Gilbert, Richard and Edmund. Before William's birth, his father became a successful merchant and held official positions as alderman and bailiff, an office resembling a mayor. However, records indicate John's fortunes declined sometime in the late 1570s.
Act 3, Scene 3 of Shakespeare's HAMLET, with notes and line numbers.
4. Verdi was fascinated by the supernatural – the power of curses in Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La forza del destino and the prophecies of the fortune-teller in Un ballo in maschera, but only three of his operas contain ghostly beings. Verdi’s early opera Giovanna d’Arco features demons who tempt Joan of Arc, and Don Carlo ends with the appearance of the ghost of Emperor Charles V of Spain. Macbeth is the one of Verdi’s operas most directly concerned with the supernatural, with its witches, the appearance of the ghost of Banquo in Act II and the ‘Show of Kings’ in Act III – a procession of kings, who Macbeth realizes are Banquo and his descendants. Interestingly, King James I of England, for whom Shakespeare wrote Macbeth, was thought to be a descendant of the Scottish lord Banquo of Lochaber on whom the character of Banquo was based.