Workshop with worked examples
Lisbon, 10-11 February 2011
At the workshop worked examples covering the key aspects of seismic design of buildings were presented. 
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If you're wondering why there is some still some confusion over exactly how large this earthquake was, it's because - rather counter-intuitively - measuring the magnitude of large earthquakes is actually more difficult than it is for smaller earthquakes. To estimate earthquake magnitudes, you look at the amplitude of the seismic waves it generates: the larger the amplitude of the waves, the larger the magnitude of the earthquake that produced them. However, in very large earthquakes, this relationship starts to break down, at least for the frequencies of seismic waves that are generally used to produce the quick magnitude estimates: they 'saturate', or stop increasing in amplitude as the earthquake magnitude does. This means that the magnitude estimates for the largest earthquakes will be somewhat underestimated until seismologists look at lower frequency seismic waves, which are less susceptible to this saturation effect.
Principle A seismic vibrator transforms the energy provided by a ..
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Geothermal energy production captures the natural heat of the Earth to generate steam that can drive a turbine to produce electricity. Geothermal systems fall into one of three different categories: (1) vapor-dominated systems, (2) liquid-dominated systems, and (3) enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Vapor-dominated systems are relatively rare. A major example is The Geysers geothermal field in Northern California. Liquid-dominated systems are used for geothermal energy in Alaska, California, Hawaii, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. In both of these types of hydrothermal resource systems, either steam or hot water is extracted from naturally occurring fractures within the rock in the subsurface and cold fluid is injected into the ground to replenish the fluid supply. EGS are a potentially new source of geothermal power in which the subsurface rocks are naturally hot and fairly impermeable, and contain relatively little fluid. Wells are used to pump cold fluid into the hot rock to gather heat, which is then extracted by pumping the fluid to the surface. In some cases a potential EGS reservoir may lack sufficient connectivity via fractures to allow fluid movement through rock. In this case the reservoir may be fractured using high-pressure fluid injection in order to increase permeability. Permeability is a measure of the ease with which a fluid flows through a rock formation. (See for detailed discussion of permeability and its relevance to fracture development and fluid flow.) In each of these geothermal systems, the injection or extraction of fluid has the potential to induce seismic activity. Further description of these technologies and examples of induced seismic activity are provided in .
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Although the vast majority of earthquakes have natural causes, some earthquakes may also be related to human activities and are called induced seismic events. Induced seismic events are usually small in both magnitude and intensity of shaking (see the section on Earthquakes and Their Measurement later in this chapter). For example, underground nuclear tests, controlled explosions in connection with mining or construction, and the impoundment of large reservoirs behind dams can each result in induced seismicity (). Energy technologies that involve injection or withdrawal of fluids from the subsurface also have the potential to induce seismic events that can be measured and felt (see Kerr, 2012).
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This document is a report with worked examples presenting step-by-step the design of a reinforced concrete cast on site building following Eurocode 2. The design process has been divided between different authors, some of whom were involved in the preparation and/or assessment of Eurocode 2. Each chapter of the report focuses on a different step in the design process: conceptual design, structural analyses, limit states design and verification, detailing of the reinforcement as well as some geotechnical aspects of building design. Last chapter gives general overview of the fire design according to the Eurocodes.
The materials were prepared and presented at the workshop "Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Buildings" held on 20 21 October 2011 in Brussels, Belgium. The workshop was organized by JRC with the support of DG ENTR and CEN, and in collaboration with CEN/TC250/Sub-Committee 2.
The document is part of the Report Series 'Support to the implementation, harmonization and further development of the Eurocodes' prepared by JRC in collaboration with DG ENTR and CEN/TC250 "Structural Eurocodes".