20 Important Benefits of Music In Our Schools

(b) Exempt teachers include, but are not limited to: Regular academic teachers; teachers of kindergarten or nursery school pupils; teachers of gifted or disabled children; teachers of skilled and semi-skilled trades and occupations; teachers engaged in automobile driving instruction; aircraft flight instructors; home economics teachers; and vocal or instrumental music instructors. Those faculty members who are engaged as teachers but also spend a considerable amount of their time in extracurricular activities such as coaching athletic teams or acting as moderators or advisors in such areas as drama, speech, debate or journalism are engaged in teaching. Such activities are a recognized part of the schools' responsibility in contributing to the educational development of the student.

By the end of the century, such secondary schools had begun to outnumber the private academies.
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Like the Protestants of the Reformation, who established vernacular elementary schools in Germany in the 16th century, the Puritans sought to make education universal.


Education” in primary education schools from music ..

The secondary school, attended by the wealthier children, was, as in most of Europe, the Latin grammar school.
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The administration of Commissioner Frank P. Graves (1921-1940) may be termed the "golden age" of the State Education Department. It was an era of remarkable change in elementary and secondary education: state aid to rural and city school districts more than doubled; thousands of rural school districts were consolidated and their one-room schools closed; standards for teacher education and certification were elevated; vocational education rapidly expanded; programs for special education and vocational rehabilitation for the handicapped initiated; and secondary education extended to the point where nearly half of students graduated from high school. However, the Department itself did not change as fast as the programs it oversaw. During the 1930s and '40s two major management studies of the Department pointed out systemic problems in its organization and operations. Some of the problems were resolved, others were not.


New York First State to Require Mental Health Education …

The Department's administrative and support functions such as personnel, payroll, accounting, auditing, public relations, printing, building and grounds were originally located in a division of accounts. It was renamed the division of administration in 1907, relieved of its fiscal responsibilities in 1921, and headed by an assistant commissioner after 1932. A separate public relations office was set up in 1948. Most Department employees were (and are) civil servants, tested and appointed under rules of the Civil Service Commission (established 1883). The Education Department, like other agencies, was responsible for setting its own rules on employee conduct, attendance, and leave. (The rules varied from agency to agency, causing much confusion.) The Legislature passed appropriation bills for salaries and other expenses. The state had no budgeting process until 1928, when the governor first presented an annual budget proposal to the Legislature. Department officials complained that salaries for many of its job titles were set lower than for the same titles in other agencies, or for jobs in urban schools and libraries. This situation was improved in 1937, when the Legislature enacted a revised, standardized title, grade, and salary structure for all state agencies.

from a family of music teachers.

The most highly educated women were the hetaerae, or courtesans, who attended special schools where they learned to be interesting companions for the men who could afford to maintain them.