Between 1998 and 2010, an unprecedented wave of left-of-center candidates reached power in Latin America. In spite of a shared concern for social inequality and opposition to the Washington Consensus, their governments pursued dramatically different economic policies. Why did some governments reverse neoliberal economic policies amid the supremacy of market orthodoxy? Why did others embrace market orthodoxy after denouncing it for decades from the opposition? Why were nationalizations, price controls, and trade barriers implemented in Argentina, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Venezuela, but not in Brazil, Chile, Nicaragua, and Uruguay? More generally, what are the conditions that make the initiation and maintenance of economic reforms likely? In answering these questions, this book conducts a theoretical and empirical study of economic reforms in Latin America. It takes stock of the left’s economic transformations in the region and challenges widely held views that resource dependence, economic crises, or strong executives are responsible for them. Instead, it argues that party systems are crucial in explaining reform: when institutionalized, party systems are likely to preserve the prevailing market orthodoxy; when in disarray, they are conducive to drastic economic changes. Marshalling evidence drawn from ten countries and case studies of the governments of Ricardo Lagos in Chile, Lula in Brazil, and Hugo Chávez in Venezuela, this study not only sheds light on one of the most puzzling aspects of contemporary Latin America, but also advances our general understanding of the left as a political ideology, economic reforms, and party systems beyond the region.
By undertaking complete measures, it may finally begin to bring under control all those other issues which tend to be approached in disparate ways. These include overpopulation, ecological destruction, famine, epidemics, child mortality, human rights, militarism and the vast movement of money from South to North. Solving only economic problems does not mean that social problems will automatically follow. Blame cannot be laid at the feet of any one issue, including the lack of land reform. The problem is a complete package which needs to be addressed, not a variety of single concerns.
Universal Healthcare on the rise in Latin America - World Bank
In concluding it could be argued that land reform is feasible, and could reduce hunger and poverty given the right circumstances, but with several preconditions. These are a movement away from the Junker Road to the Farmer Road, an improvement in terms of trade, a change in rural marketing methods, welfare and attitudes, agricultural policies firmly tied to industrial, economic and social policies, more localized industrialization, and strong state political control of all of these elements.
Mental Health Care Reforms in Latin America: An …
Most significantly, the Fed’s expected tightening of monetary policy, international market volatility, tax reform in the United States and uncertainty over NAFTA and Mexico’s presidential election can debilitate the peso and create inflationary pressures; depending on their degree, these pressures could push Banxico to further increase interest rates and adversely affect economic growth.
Reforms and growth in Latin America | Digital …
The three objectives would be, advancing structural transformation, raising the welfare of the rural population, along with fostering changes in their attitudes and behavior. [Lecture 2.2.93] This theory does appear to make some sense. However it does not take into account some of the political and economic realities of Latin America.
Tax Reform: Mexico Marks the Path to Follow in Latin America
Vertical integration, where all sectors were evolving at the same time, was the important element in the European Industrial revolution. New technology was advanced simultaneously for agriculture and industry. This vital element was not heeded in Latin American states as the focus of policies and theories was moved around continuously.
Reform Movements in 19th Century America - EarthLink
Here, as in most other Latin American states, the Trickle Down Theory exacerbated divisions of wealth. Inequality of wealth was actually deemed favorable. Potential markets were eliminated and effective markets saturated. This contributed to the rationalization of agriculture consolidating land into even larger landholdings dominated by the rich. [Bennet, J. pp. 137,8]
Reform Movements in 19th Century America Girls' School, ..
ISI was not the success in South America that it was purported to be. In Brazil, claimed to be the "economic miracle", the majority of the population lives in poverty. There are many reasons for this but can be tied largely to its narrow focus. No heed was given to the agricultural sector, apart from that it would provide cheap surplus labor for the new factories. Many of those dislocated moved into the Black Economy. [Soe p.245]