"Leaflets of Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm"

2. The significance of the Navy's role in Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM is clear. Forward deployed naval forces provided protection for early introduction of land-based ground and air assets, and may well have deterred further aggression by Iraq. Maritime superiority and unchallenged control of the sea enabled the safe and timely delivery of equipment, supplies and spare parts necessary to support the allied campaign. Interdiction of Iraqi seaborne trade, an ongoing operation, cut enemy resupply, dampened their will to fight and significantly impacted Iraq's economic health. More than 90% of material to support the campaign was delivered by sealift, and the majority of medical assets in the early months were provided by Navy. The presence of Middle East Force ships deterred Iraqi mine laying in the southern Persian Gulf. Naval aviation complemented allied air operations, added flexibility to the air campaign and deterred reintroduction of Iraqi aircraft from Iran into the conflict. Tomahawk cruise missiles took out heavily defended targets in Iraq and significantly degraded enemy air defenses.

Complete timeline of Operation Desert Storm, spanning from 1899 to 1991.

I have written numerous articles reporting on the use of banknotes as a powerful tool of psychological operations (PSYOP). Banknotes have always been a popular medium for propaganda messages since they immediately attract the eye and finders will almost always pick them up off the ground. It is a way for the propagandist to be sure that his message will be read. In addition, banknote propaganda can be easily hidden in a wallet to be read or used at a later and more convenient time. The United States PSYOP effort in Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm made great use of banknote propaganda. Currency propaganda has not been used in such numbers since World War II.


Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm

It's been 25 years since the start of Operation Desert Storm

We should also mention that as the 4th PSYOP Group geared up for Operation Desert Storm it required manpower from its various battalions and detachments deployed in South America, Europe and Asia. A call went out to identify and rapidly reassign experienced PSYOP officers and those with special skills from around the world to the 4th POG. Eventually, forty PSYOP officers who called themselves the "Lost Boys" were identified and assigned to the battle against Saddam Hussein.


VII Corps in Operation DESERT STORM

The booklet says:

Rick Atkinsondiscusses logjam this in , Houghton Mifflin Company, New York, 1993.
However, the plan was eventually approved and was a great success. At about the same time in November 1990, the Proven Force auxiliary plan for operations in was approved in concept. We should also mention that as the 4th PSYOP Group geared up for Operation Desert Storm it required manpower from its various battalions and detachments deployed in South America, Europe and Asia. A call went out to identify and rapidly reassign experienced PSYOP officers and those with special skills from around the world to the 4th POG. Eventually, forty PSYOP officers who called themselves the "Lost Boys" were identified and assigned to the battle against Saddam Hussein. The main American proponent of psychological warfare leaflets was the 4th Psychological Operations Group (Airborne). They produced and printed over 29 million leaflets. The Coalition forces packed M129E1 leaflet bombs with up to 54,000 machine-rolled leaflets, which were dropped over Iraqi concentrations by F-16, F/A-18, B-52, and MC-130 aircraft. Other leaflets were delivered by balloons. Before the war started, 12,000 leaflets were floated onto the beaches of Kuwait by bottle. Interrogation of Iraqi prisoners revealed that 98% had seen Coalition leaflets. Atkinson says:
The Post-Operational Analysis of Psychological Operations During Desert Shield/Storm indicates that leaflet missions were flown on 33 days from 20 December 1990 to 24 February 1991. Six missions were classified, 15 were from MC-130 aircraft, 7 from F-16 fighter-bombers, and 5 were B-52 drops. In all, 19.08 million CENTCOM leaflets were disseminated on , and . Approximately 10 million were dropped on Northern Iraq, presumably from . The leaflets and themes were approved by General Schwarzkopf's staff, and then printed independently in Saudi Arabia and Turkey. Colonel Jeffrey B. Jones discusses the Psychological operations in an article entitled “Psychological Operations in Desert Shield, Desert Storm and Urban Freedom, , July 1994
In 2016, on the anniversary of the 1 December 1967 activation of the 8th PSYOP Battalion, a synopsis of their activities in Desert Storm was given:
Collecting PSYOP Leaflets PFC David Simmons was assigned to Bravo Company, 502nd Support Battalion of the 2nd Armor Division during Operation Desert Storm. Here he shows Souvenir-hunting Coalition soldiers bending over to pick up some of the thousands of Allied PSYOP leaflets dropped on a berm that defines the Saudi Arabian - Kuwait border.

1991 - Persian Gulf - Operation Desert Storm

The first PSYOP teams deployed to on 7 August. On 10 August the PSYOP planning cell was in CENTCOM HQ. On 11 August CENTCOM set forth the National and PSYOP objectives, themes to be stressed and avoided, military actions, target audiences and PSYOP products. By 17 August a Desert Shield PSYOP Strategic Plan was finalized. We should point out that it took months for the plan to be approved by everyone up the chain of command and required General Schwarzkopf to get personally involved. The Post-Operational Analysis of Psychological Operations During Desert Shield/Storm adds: