There has been little research on United States homicide rates from a long-term perspective, primarily because there has been no consistent data series on a particular place preceding the Uniform Crime Reports (UCR), which began its first full year in 1931. To fill this research gap, this project created a data series on homicides per capita for New York City that spans two centuries. The goal was to create a site-specific, individual-based data series that could be used to examine major social shifts related to homicide, such as mass immigration, urban growth, war, demographic changes, and changes in laws. The researcher chose to focus on a specific geographic area because the composite national data did not provide the details needed for careful analysis. Data were also gathered on various other sites, particularly in England, to allow for comparisonson important issues, such as the post-World War II wave of violence.
Part 1 variables include counts of New York City homicides, arrests, and convictions, as well as the homicide rate, race or ethnicity and gender of victims, type of weapon used, and source of data. Part 2 includes the date of the murder, the age, sex, and race of the offender and victim, and whether the case led to an arrest, trial, conviction, execution, or pardon. Part 3 contains annual homicide counts and rates for various comparison sites including Liverpool, London, Kent, Canada, Baltimore, Los Angeles,Seattle, and San Francisco.
What 15 historic New York City scenes look ..
The basic approach to the data collection was to obtain the best possible estimate of annual counts and the most complete information on individual homicides. The annual count data (Parts 1 and 3) were derived from multiple sources, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation's Uniform Crime Reports and Supplementary Homicide Reports, as well as other official counts from the New York City Police Department and the City Inspector in the early 19th century. When there were discrepancies among sources, the principal investigator used the source giving the higher count, based on the assumption that missing information tends to bias toward an undercount. The data include a combined count of murder and manslaughter because charge bargaining often blurs this legal distinction. The following incidents were excluded from the counts: accidental homicides, infanticides, cases involving children under 5 except when evidence in individual cases made it clear that these were murders, women who died during the course of an abortion, riot victims, the killing of an offender during the course of an arrest, and legal executions. The individual-level data (Part 2) were drawn from coroners' indictments held by the New York City Municipal Archives, and from daily newspapers. Duplication was avoided by keeping a record for each victim. The estimation technique known as "capture-recapture" was used to estimate homicides not listed ineither source.
Map Shows How Big New York Is Compared To Other …
The photo on the left is one of hundreds taken by Berenice Abbott during and after the Great Depression; what began as a impulse to document the city became "Changing New York," a project funded by the Federal Art Project (part of the Works Progress Administation). Abbott snapped images of the city's neighborhoods, capturing quotidian street scenes; this image, taken on the Lower East Side, shows the Manhattan Bridge framed by tenement buildings on either side. The scene isn't so different now, although the bridge is now flanked by the Henry Rutgers Houses, a NYCHA housing project.
27/04/2015 · History; Language; Food; ..
That's why we've created the composite images below: On the left, you'll see a New York City street scene as it was decades ago; on the right, that same scene but in the present day. (Swipe the red line in the middle of each shot back and forth to get different perspectives—you can also choose to just see the old or new photos.) Sometimes the changing are startling—we knew there was an elevated train in Brooklyn, but to see it is a whole other thing—while others, not so much.