Demyelination is the hallmark of multiple sclerosis, and it is also known that oligodendrocytes degenerate in this disorder. Yet we still do not understand the primary target of MS. Is it the oligodendrocyte or the myelin sheath it forms? Much is known about the “death cascade” in neurons, which leads from initial insults, via a series of molecular steps, to the ultimate death of the cell. Less is known about the degenerative cascade in oligodendrocytes. Recent evidence suggests that excitotoxic mechanisms, possibly involving glutamate acting via AMPA/kainate receptors, may injure oligodendrocytes (). (The AMPA/kainate receptor is one of several glutamate receptors in the brain; it also binds to kainic acid and AMPA.) If the details of mechanisms that injure oligodendrocytes and axons were better understood, it might be possible to protect oligodendrocytes, or their myelin sheaths, so that they are not injured in MS.
disability. Synapses are not formed onto axons, so that the excitotoxic theory of neuronal death, which almost certainly applies to diseases of gray matter such as stroke, may not play an important role in multiple sclerosis.
Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms & Early Warning Signs of MS
9. , , , , , . . Sensory neuron specific sodium channel SNS is abnormally expressed in the brains of mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis and humans with multiple sclerosis. ;.
05/12/2017 · What Is MS
The authors write, “The disease (Multiple Sclerosis) causes demyelination of the central nervous system and results in symptoms such as extreme fatigue, mobility impairment, optic neuritis, weakness or paralysis, abnormal/painful sensations, and loss of balance. Although these symptoms can result in considerable disability for the person with MS (Finlayson, Impey, Nicolle, & Edwards, 1998), overall life expectancy is not dramatically altered for these individuals (Weinshenker, 1995). Of those with MS, 85%-90% can expect to live as long as their age peers (Minden, Marder, Harrold, & Dor, 1993). Currently in the United States, life expectancy estimates range from 74 years for men to 79 years for women (Centers for Disease Control, 2001).”
Multiple sclerosis in adults: management | Guidance …
The permeability of the blood-brain barrier reflects, to a major degree, the tightness of the junctions between endothelial cells. Astrocytes are the brain cells that are the nearest neighbors to these cells. Astrocytes send out “feet” that cover much of the surface of the endothelial barrier cells. While astrocytes play a role in brain permeability, this can be modified by many other factors, including a range of inflammatory mediators secreted by leukocytes., It is important to determine whether it is possible to modulate the leakiness of the blood vessels that occurs in multiple sclerosis by modifying the behavior of astrocytes.
New Database for Sharing MS Clinical Trial Data | …
Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells that do not form myelin. They have traditionally been viewed only as “scarring” elements in multiple sclerosis. Yet there is evidence that these cells are much more complex than this. Astrocytes are capable of presenting antigens and promoting T-cell proliferation, which indicates that they might play a role in reactivation and regulation of inflammatory process in the brain.,, They may play an important role in the etiopathogen-