Homestead and Mining Claims in 19th Century America …

The heritage and history of the Silvermines area is unique in terms of mining and for centuries now, mining has been carried out at various stages and with varying degrees of intensity. The earliest mention of mining in this area dates to 1289 when Italian miners from Genoa and Florence in Northern Italy came to Silvermines in search of silver.

A 19th century church in Germany was demolished this week to make way for coal mining

Furthermore banking developed in the 17th century. As England grew more commercial so lending money became more important. In the early 17th century goldsmiths lent and changed money. Then in 1640 King Charles I confiscated gold, which London merchants had deposited at the mint for safety. Afterwards people began to deposit money with goldsmiths instead. The goldsmiths gave receipts for the gold in the form of notes promising to pay on demand.

The programme included the conservation of five 19th century …

History of coal mining in southern Appalachia, and how it radically transformed the region.

During the 1840s lead mining saw a decline in southwestern Wisconsin. By 1844 one third of the people living in this part of state had left. The reasons for this exodus was because the lead was becoming harder to find and more expensive to extract. This along with iron and copper mines springing up in other parts of the country didn’t help. The last event to pull people away from the southwestern part of Wisconsin was the California gold rush in 1849. The people who remained decided to put down roots in that corner of the state and start farming. Many of these farmers continued to mine part time to add income to their farm. As time went on the few large mines that remained switched from mining lead to zinc due to the fact that most of the lead was gone from the land. In the 1850s mining had shrunk so much that 90% of the land was now farm land. Although most mines in the lead region were gone by the 1840s, a few managed to hang on through until the next century. Just as the lead mining began to tail off iron mining began to start all over the state. As early as 1849 Sauk, Dodge, and Jackson counties began to be mined for iron ore, these deposits were miniscule in comparison to deposits in the northern part of Wisconsin near the border with Upper Michigan.


The social impact of the Mogul of Ireland Mine in Silvermines had a tremendous effect on the area, extending to neighbouring towns and counties. It was a high-paying mine and created a variety of skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled jobs, many with bonus opportunities for extra earnings. It operated a shift work system, with several shifts: 8a.m – 4p.m., 8 p.m- 4 a.m, 4 p.m. – 12 midnight, 12 midnight to 8 a.m. There had never been an industry with such an immediate effect on the hinterland. Workers were drawn to the mine from far and near. In Nenagh, 16 houses were built by the Company and given the name Knight’s Crescent, after the original chairman, Mr. Bud Knight, Chairman, Consolidated Mogul Mines. At Ballygraigue, 36 houses were built by the National Building Corporation, to accommodate workers and their families.

a programme without precedent in any part of the State

An Taoiseach, Mr. Jack Lynch, T.D., officially opened the mine and was given a tour of the plant. Many directors from Canada also attended the opening. The plant cost $22million (£8.8million) to erect and was built within the projected timescale.
When complete, it was the largest base metal mine in Europe and the by far the largest single employer of North Tipperary, employing over 500 people. The plant was designed to mine 3,000 tons of ore per day and produce 400 tons of concentrate for transporting to Foynes by rail each day.

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Development work was done on an incentive bonus system, by means of which the miner was paid a standard weekly wage plus a bonus on the footage advanced, provided this reached the target figure set for the particular heading, explosives having being supplied free by the company. The drill crew was expected to obtain a target figure of 20 ft. per week of six shifts for which they would have received a bonus of four shillings and sixpence per foot for all footage obtained, while the helper was paid three shillings and sixpence per foot on the footage advanced.