Hans Jacob Orning: “Feuds and conflict resolution in fact and fiction in late medieval Iceland”, in Steinar Imsen (ed.): “Legislation and State Formation. Norway and its neighbours in the Middle Ages”, Akademika forlag, 2013
1200BC)describes a banquet with tables laid with sweet things, syrup, canes to chew'...Seven centurieslater, when Darius made his foray in to the valley of the Indus, the Persians in their turndiscovered a reed that gives honey without the aid of bees' and brought it home withthem...Eventually invasions, conquests and trading caravans, most notably those of the Assyrians,spread sugar cane all through the Middle East, from the Indus to the Black Sea, from the Saharato the Persian Gulf...It syrup, considered a spice even rarer and more expensive than any other,was used in medicine by the Egyptians and Phoenicians even before the Greeks and Romans; it isthis pharmaceutical use that gives sugar cane its species name "officinarum."...Until moderntimes...sugar was an expensive medicine to Europeans, or a luxury reserved for the rich andpowerful, a fabulous food brought from beyond the deserts by caravans than ended their journeysin the ports of the eastern Mediterranean...The Arabs installed the first industrial' sugar refineryon the island of Candia or Crete--its Arabic name, Quandi, meant crystalized sugar'--around theyear 1000."
---, Maguelonne Toussaint-Samat,Translated by Anthea Bell [Barnes &Noble Books:New York] 1992 (p.
The Middle Ages was a time of little progress
Blame the Italians: During the 1400s and the bloom of the Renaissance in Italy, people created the perception that the Middle Ages was a dark period in history.
The Medieval Period, commonly known as The Middle Ages ..
And Francis Bacon, writing in 1626,notes: "They have in Turkey and the East certaine Confections, which they call Servets [sherbets], which are like to CandiedConserves and...these they dissolve in Water, and therof make their Drinke...'...Stiff fruit fruit jellies, coated in sugar, as wellas wobbly ones for the pudding table, were greatly in favour during the eighteenth century, when the thickening agent used wassometimes isinglass...Another type of conserved fruit sweetmeat persists as the unappetisingly named 'leather', thin layers offruit paste, made of fruit and sugar in equal parts...This leather is known as armadine in the Middle East..."
---, Tim Richardson [Bantam Books:London] 2002 (p.
and the presumed sacred languages of the medieval period
Cookbooks confirm European and MiddleEastern medieval pasta dishes could have been sweet (filled with cheese, honey, nuts, andcinnamon) or savoury (filled with meat, pepper, and saffron).
Poverty and Prosperity in the Middle Ages and Renaissance
Even before theearliest recipes were written, cheese with pasta was the delight of the bon vivants of the MiddleAges...Present in all the medieval collections of recipes that feature pasta, grated cheese was oftenmixed with spices..."These tortelli must be yellow and strongly spiced, serve them in bowls withplenty of pepper and grated cheese...Although it was abandoned by the elite beginning in theseventeenth century, the mixture of cheese and spices continued in popular use.
How did the Renaissance differ from the Middle Ages? | …
Recipesincorporating almond "flour" date from the Middle Ages in Europe, a period when almond "milk"was also used--as a liquid substitute for milk and eggs on days of fasting.