The WCCA and WRA facilities were generally spartan, built so that they were just meeting international laws, many without plumbing or cooking facilities. At first, the camps were tightly guarded, but later on rules were relaxed greatly, allowing free movement for internees outside the camp for work. Some of the centers were located on Native American reservations, and the Native Americans were compensated for the land use. Those who were interned were generally cooperative, largely due to traditional Japanese mentality which encouraged them to obey the government and act for the good of the collective. 20,000 Japanese-Americans even joined the US military to fight, many on the front lines, but there were some who resisted the government, including few who renounced their American citizenships in spite of their treatment.
Canadian officials acknowledged today that a compensation bill for interned Japanese-Americans that was signed by President Reagan last month prompted them to resolve an impasse blocking the agreement announced today. The United States law provides for payments of $20,000 to each of 120,000 Japanese-American survivors of the American wartime internment policy.
Family housing at the Japanese internment camp in Tule Lake.
After WW2, 4,000 internees were deported to Japan, though the deportation was stopped in 1947 due to public protest. Most of the other internees were once again relocated east of the Rocky Mountains. The Japanese-Canadian internees were finally freed on 1 Apr 1949. Many of them opted not to return to British Columbia, choosing to settle in the eastern provinces such as Ontario and Québec instead.
Internment of Japanese Canadians - The Canadian …
Columnist Henry McLemore wrote around this time in support of the forced relocation of Japanese-Americans, at the same time reflecting his prejudice:
Japanese-American Internment Camps
Despite these sentiments, prejudice against the Japanese were not total. Director of the FBI J. Edgar Hoover, for example, argued that DeWitt's suspicion, which fueled the forced relocation, was groundless. Many high ranking personnel in military intelligence also noted that there were no concrete evidence for espionage that warranted mass relocation. Among the politicians who voiced against the prejudice against Japanese-Americans was the governor of Colorado Ralph Lawrence Carr, who went as far as publicly apologizing for the internment during the war.
Internment in Canada: WW1 vs WW2 – All About Canadian …
On 19 Feb 1942, US President Franklin Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, which allowed military commanders to designate "military areas" in the United States at their discretion; DeWitt established Military Area No. 1, covering nearly the entire west coast of the United States, and on 2 Mar 1942 announced that all Japanese-Americans might be subjected to exclusion orders allowed by Executive Order 9066. On 11 Mar, Executive Order 9095 was issued to create the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, which had authority over all property of enemy aliens, including the power to freeze financial assets. On 24 Mar, DeWitt declared that every night between 2000 hours and 0600 hours in the following morning, a curfew would be in effect for "all enemy aliens and all persons of Japanese ancestry" in certain areas of Military Area No. 1. Three days later, he prohibited Japanese-Americans from moving outside of Military Area No. 1. On 3 May, DeWitt ordered all persons of Japanese ancestry to report to designated assembly areas, where they would wait until being transferred to permanent relocation centers. DeWitt's definition of Japanese ancestry was fairly wide, thus those with more than one-eighth Japanese ancestry and Korean-Americans (since Korea was Japanese territory at the time) were ordered to assemble as well. This order was popular among Caucasian land owners in California, for it was a quick way to eliminate competition in the agricultural field. Austin Anson, managing secretary of the Salinas Vegetable Grower-Shipper Association, told the Saturday Evening Post in 1942 that
Canadian Internment Camps | Petawawa Heritage Village
In February 1942, all persons of Japanese origin within 160 kilometres (100 miles) of the coast was ordered removed from their homes. Japanese-Canadians and Japanese nationals were issued identification cards and were required to report weekly to the RCMP. Males aged 18 to 45 were sent to work camps while women, children, and the elderly were evacuated. They were allowed to take only what they could carry. The rest of their property, including homes and cars, was confiscated. In April 1942, many men were transferred to southern Alberta’s sugarbeet fields, where some would be reunited with their families. On the sugarbeet fields, men, women, and children each assumed various responsibilities and worked gruelling shifts.