The Cold War fluctuated between periods of direct and ..

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was the term used after 1980 to explain the effect of war on soldiers and was later used outside the military to describe the impact of a traumatic event on an individual. However, there is a long history of different diagnoses used to try and get to grips with the psychological impact of war. The most recent war syndromes include Gulf War syndrome, experienced mainly by American and British soldiers who fought in the 1991 Gulf War.

 The quote is from Garthoff,

Specific measures that were supposed to improveeffectiveness were subject of separate research programs that were also part ofthe "SP-2000" program. Most of these were widely discussed in the context ofSDI countermeasures at the time - shorter boost phase, rotation of missilebodies, reduced detection signature of warheads, penetration aids, methods ofblinding missile defense sensors, etc. All these were relatively long-termresearch projects that were expected to produce preliminary results by the endof the 1980s.

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- The beginning of amassive, coordinated campaign involving all the Union Armies. In Virginia,Grant with an Army of 120,000 begins advancing toward Richmond to engageLee's Army of Northern Virginia, now numbering 64,000, beginning a warof attrition that will include major battles at the Wilderness (May 5-6),Spotsylvania (May 8-12), and Cold Harbor (June 1-3).

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Specific measures that were included in the "Protivodeystviye"program concentrated on improving the capabilities of ballistic missiles todefeat or penetrate space-based defenses. Among those designed for the boostphase were development of new engines that would allow shortening it,protecting missile bodies with heat absorbing material and implementingrotation of missiles. The countermeasures that were supposed to work duringmidcourse flight included new penetration aids, maneuverable warheads, andgliding reentry vehicles.

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- The Rebel siegeof Chattanooga ends as Union forces under Grant defeat the siege army ofGen. Braxton Bragg. During the battle, one of the most dramatic momentsof the war occurs. Yelling "Chickamauga! Chickamauga!" Uniontroops avenge their previous defeat at Chickamauga by storming up the faceof Missionary Ridge without orders and sweep the Rebels from what had beenthough to be an impregnable position. "My God, come and see 'em run!"a Union soldier cries.

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Civilian populations often have to deal with the after effects of war. They include damage to infrastructure such as hospitals and to medical care, often a result of a shortage of doctors. A number of countries, especially in Asia, have had to deal with the devastating effects of on the local population.

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Civilians, particularly children, can also suffer the effects of trauma. Child emerged during the Second World War from the work of Anna Freud, psychoanalyst and daughter of . She set up a centre for young war victims called the Hampstead War Nursery. Here the children separated from their parents were given foster care. After the war this continued at the Bulldogs Bank Home, an orphanage that was run by Freud’s colleagues and which took care of children who had survived the concentration camps.