Record keeping was rather shoddy, and so exact numbers are impossible to determine, but about 40,000 Canadians and Maritimers served in the war. Despite sympathies for the Confederacy, most fought for the North. Some were working in the United States when the war began and volunteered with local regiments. Others left Canada to enlist. Some were tricked, bribed and even kidnapped by ruthless American recruiters, called crimpers. Canadian and Maritime soldiers and sailors fought in nearly every battle of the American Civil War. By the war’s end, many had become officers and 29 had won the Congressional Medal of Honor, the highest military honour in the United States.
The American Civil War (1861–65) was fought between the northern (Union) states and the southern (Confederate) states, which withdrew from the United States in 1860–61. The war left cities in ruins, shattered families and took the lives of an estimated 750,000 Americans. The war also involved those living in what is now Canada, including roughly 40,000 who joined the fight. The war played a significant role in how and when Canada became an independent country.
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- The Union Army underGen. suffersa defeat at 25 miles southwest of Washington. Confederate Gen. earns the nickname "Stonewall," as his brigaderesists Union attacks. Union troops fall back to Washington. PresidentLincoln realizes the war will be long. "It's damned bad," hecomments.
A house divided against itself cannot stand
(The recent split in the SPLA- patchedup again at the Abjure conference in June 1992 with the move by Garangtowards the advocates of separation of the South - suggests that tribaland racial loyalties are still active factors, however, and thatrhetoric may not always be matched by reality).
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Although the civil war had been halted in1972 with the Addis Ababa Accord which recognised the autonomy of theSouth, Southern Sudanese were denied their share of the benefits ofpeace.
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The southern states created their own country called the Confederate States of America. Lincoln said that secession was illegal and refused to acknowledge the new country. After southern (Confederate) and northern (Union) troops fired on each other at Fort Sumter, off the coast of Charleston, South Carolina, four more southern states seceded and joined the Confederacy. Lincoln called for the creation of a Union army to attack the rebels and reunite the country. The Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, also built an army, claiming it was needed to defend his new country against a foreign aggressor. The war’s first major battle occurred in July 1861, just outside of Washington, DC, near Manassas, Virginia.
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The threatened to directly involve Canada in the Civil War. In international waters near Cuba, on 8 November 1861, a Union ship stopped Trent, a British merchant ship and mail packet. Two Confederate officials were taken from Trent and arrested. Britain pledged to declare war on the United States unless the men were released and Lincoln apologized. Meanwhile, Britain sent thousands of soldiers to and the to prepare for the war that it predicted would begin with Americans marching north. Lincoln was advised to invade Canada, but said he would fight only one war at a time. He did not apologize, but the men were freed and the crisis subsided.
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-The Peninsular Campaign begins as McClellan's Army of the Potomac advancesfrom Washington down the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay to the peninsularsouth of the Confederate Capital of Richmond, Virginia then begins an advancetoward Richmond.