By 1800, about the only thing keeping the Ottoman Empire alive was the Great Powers preventing any one of them from seizing it. The issue of the Ottoman Empire’s fate became known as the Eastern Question. European powers nibbled away at it, however. Greece was carved away from it in the 1820s, Russia kept southward pressure on Ottoman lands and sought influence in the Balkans, and a series of events eventually led to the Crimean War, which began in 1853, as France, the UK, and the Ottoman armies fought against the Russians, in the . The war blunted Russia’s ambition for Black Sea hegemony, and about 700,000 people, most of them civilians, died.
At the time, a successful voyage to India was more useful news to the European powers than what . In 1500, 13 ships, with Dias captaining one of them, set sail toward India again. The fleet visited Brazil along the way, taking a circuitous route around Africa, and seven ships were lost, including Dias’s. The six-month journey returned to Calicut on the western coast of India, and once again the reception was less than welcoming. The Portuguese retaliated by bombarding the city with cannons and burning boats. A series of explicitly military voyages ensued, and the Portuguese violently established a trade route to India and conquered the Muslim port of Goa in 1510. In 1511, Portugal conquered Malacca, in today’s Malaysia, which was the spice trade’s heart. While the Portuguese found the Arabs and other Muslims relatively easy to defeat militarily, and seizing their trading ports was how Portugal established itself, the Chinese Empire was another matter. The in the early 1400s were tremendous, with more than 20,000 men on each excursion. The few Portuguese boats that arrived failed to overawe the Chinese, who were far more civilized than the European interlopers. The Portuguese were reduced to smuggling as they continued to try gaining trading rights with China, and they began trading with Japan in 1543. In 1557, Portugal finally secured the rights to an easily watched and non-defendable tip of a peninsula. Their toehold became Macau. Pepper was by far the greatest import from Portugal’s trade route to Asia, which amounted to about 6,000 tons annually by 1520 and accounted for about 40% of Crown revenues.
★ WHEN WAS WORLD WAR 2 ACTUALLY BEGAN ★ Watch FREE Video Now
During the bloody campaign that Israel waged against Palestinians during 2002, George Bush the Second took the stage and proposed a step toward a solution: demanding that Yasser Arafat step down from his position as the leader of the Palestinian people. Arafat was not a Vichy Palestinian, although as with all national leaders, he may have been in it more for himself than the people he represents, but at least Arafat was an leader, . Although the USA's media did not report much about it, that “diplomatic” attempt by Bush was met throughout the world with shock. Even Tony Blair was forced into backing away, leaving Bush alone on the world stage, demonstrating that his grasp of political reality was as deep and thorough as a child’s.
International News | Latest World News, Videos & …
The Philippines’ case was particularly egregious. The USA had designs on Caribbean islands for many years, and as they were in the USA's backyard, Americans could concoct some mildly plausible case for their conquest. The Philippines, however, lay across the world’s largest ocean. “Discovered” by in 1521, who died while fighting the natives there, the Philippines were conquered by Spain during the 1560s and Manila was established. The Philippines peoples did not have the imperial culture of the or and there were no gold-plated civilizations to plunder. Also, the Philippines were conquered later in the imperial game than the New World was. The Spanish experience in the Philippines was kind of a cross between the mass conversions of Mexico and its hacienda economy, imposed on peoples more like Caribbean natives than Aztecs. Priests, ranchers, and plantation owners dominated the Philippines during the colonial era, and the church was the Philippines’ largest landowner. The Spanish never had a gentle colonial tenure anywhere, but at least the Philippine experience was not the vast genocide that marked their .
Syrian Civil War Fast Facts - CNN
The European concept of wealth became abstracted with the money revolution, and it became further abstracted with the rise of capitalism. Shares of corporate stock are the ultimate symbols of wealth in today’s world and define the fortunes of the world’s richest people, from Bill Gates and the Walton (Wal-Mart) family on downward. Around the year 2000, Bill Gates possessed more “wealth” than the 100 million poorest Americans combined, to reach surreal levels of wealth concentration. The rise of the corporation was evident when Great Britain began plundering India, and shares of the English East India Company became coveted as the money rolled in from the , and the East India Company became India's acting government.