Florida’s cash receipts for watermelon production totaled $88.2 million in 2015. During the 2010 production season, watermelon was the state’s seventh ranking vegetable crop in terms of value. Watermelon production value represented 1.1% of the total production value of all Florida vegetables (USDA/NASS 2017).
Adequate management of weeds in Florida watermelon production cannot be obtained with herbicides alone. Weed management in watermelon requires a combination of tactics, including good field preparation and cultivation (Hochmuth et al. 1997; Locascio et al. 1989). Because of the wider row spacing in watermelon production, between-row cultivation is more common for watermelons than for other cucurbits such as cucumbers and cantaloupe. Cultivation must be shallow to avoid injuring crop roots, and it is limited to the first 4–5 weeks after emergence. Mechanical cultivation is impractical after that time due to the running of vines, and it is no longer cost-effective because yields are reduced by weed competition primarily during the early weeks (Stall 1999; Terry et al. 1997). Used early in the season, mechanical control (disking, hoeing, mowing, or cultivation) is an important part of the overall weed management program for watermelons.
Cultural History of Crop Production on Appalachian …
During the early 1920s, there was a sudden and dramatic shift among the leading soybean producing states. In 1920, according to the December issue of the Monthly Crop Reporter , the top five producers had been North Carolina (1,638,000 bu), Virginia (570,000 bu), Alabama (228,000 bu), Missouri (133,000 bu), and Kentucky (120,000 bu); most were southern states. During the 1930s, each of these states but Missouri plummeted in relative importance (Fig. 2.6), as soybean acreage and production expanded rapidly into the Corn Belt. In 1924, Illinois passed North Carolina to become the leading producer, a rank she held until 1980. In 1924 the top five producers were Illinois (1,380,000 bu; 26.5% of total), North Carolina (1,160,000 bu; 22.3%), Missouri (656,000 bu; 12.6%), Indiana (653,000 bu; 12.6%), and Ohio (195,000 bu; 3.8%) (Stewart et al. 1932). In 1929 Indiana snatched the second place spot from North Carolina, only to be passed in turn by Iowa in the late 1930s.
Agricultural output - Crop production - OECD Data
It was mentioned above that the growth of the US soybean processing industry, which produced soy oil and defatted soybean meal, was a major cause of the increase in soybean acreage and in the percentage of the crop harvested for beans. The takeoff of this industry, which started in 1935, and its subsequent growth are detailed in Chapter 26. The processing was initially done primarily to produce oil; the weak demand for the meal was the limiting factor for the growth of the industry (Horvath 1933). However by the mid 1930s, due in large part to the research of J.W. Hayward of the University of Wisconsin, soybean meal became an accepted part of livestock and poultry feeds. This greatly stimulated soybean production, as did the first major exports of US soybeans, with 2 million bushels from the 1931 crop going to Europe.
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1920-1929 . During the 1920s the soybean advanced from a substitute crop to one of major importance (Morse 1926). The decade started with the propitious founding of the American Soybean Association (ASA), whose history is described in detail in Chapter 39. By holding annual meetings and serving as a vehicle for communication within the growing industry, the ASA played a key role in stimulating interest in and production of soybeans. Other pioneers began to appear. The first American to fully realize the great potential of the soybean in the US was Charles V. Piper of the USDA. He prophesied its great future with uncanny accuracy. His co-worker William J. Morse deserves more credit than any other single person for the remarkable success of soybeans in America. The full story of Piper and Morse is told in Chapter 38. The work of other early soybean pioneers such as Burlison, Hackleman, Beeson, and many more is told in Chapter 37.
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The 1930s saw a widespread growth of interest in using the soybean's oil and protein to manufacture a remarkable array of industrial products ranging from paints and soaps to plastics and glues. In 1936 the United States Regional Soybean Industrial Products Laboratory was established at Urbana, Illinois, to do research and development on such products. These developments (described in Chapters 36 and 37??) received widespread publicity (one of the foremost publicists was Henry Ford); this stimulated popular and agricultural interest in the crop, which in turn stimulated expansion of acreage.