Existentialism is a philosophical movement that views human existence as having a set of underlying themes and characteristics, such as anxiety, dread, freedom, awareness of death, and consciousness of existing. Existentialism is also an outlook, or a perspective, on life that pursues the question of the meaning of life or the meaning of existence. It is this question that is seen of paramount importance, above both scientific and other philosophical pursuits.
While Grendel is a provocative and innovative work, John Gardner's views on art, as reflected in Grendel, are based upon a misunderstanding of art and are therefore unfounded....
Grendel, is definitely an existentialist.
Grendel's exploits provide the reader with a clear understanding of the strong opinions the author carries and can be seen clearly as a narrative supporting nihilism in its many forms.
"What Is Existentialism?" Youtube
Although there are certain common tendencies among existentialist thinkers, there are major differences and disagreements among them, and not all of them even affiliate themselves with or accept the validity of the term "existentialism", which was coined by and popularized especially by Sartre. In German the phrase (philosophy of existence) is also used.
Human beings are exposed to or, to use the philosopher 's phrase, "thrown" into, existence. Existentialists consider being thrown into existence as prior to, and the horizon or context of, any other thoughts or ideas that humans have or definitions of themselves that they create. This is part of the meaning of the assertion of the philosopher , one of the founders of existentialism, "existence is prior to essence." Existentialism conceives of itself as something that can only be understood through and in relation to these basic characteristics of human existence.
Gardner s Grendel and Existentialism Essay - 768 Words
Sartre's dictum, "Existence precedes and rules essence," is generally taken to mean that . Since Sartrean existentialism does not acknowledge the existence of a , or of any other determining principle, are free to act as they choose; his abovementioned essay is the most programmatic and straightforward statement of this principle. Even if an individual believes that he has an essence -- such as a soul or rationality or a psychological type -- that essence is a choice that he is making rather than something pre-existing that is imposed on him.
The monster Grendel begins life as an existentialist
All the revelers
get punished, in this roughshod Homeric jurisprudence, but the poet is above the law.
The same kind of license is exercised by the bards of Gardner’s novel, who actually have
more influence than kings in shaping the attitudes and aspiration of the royal entourage.
In the Beowulf epic, the appearance of Grendel is
never described, but we are told that he is
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In contrast to Sartre's atheism, Kierkegaard's Christian existentialism focused on the relationship between the self and God. Kierkegaard never posited or thought it possible to prove the existence of God. However, he argued that an individual could, despite one's doubt, have faith that God exists and that God is good. This leap of faith was for Kierkegaard a choice that an individual must make in defining his or her life. The leap of faith signifies an individual's choice to embrace meaning in life. As with atheistic existentialism, Kierkegaard's Christian existentialism does not impose a reality or meaning on the individual; rather, the individual makes the choice to take meaning in life and to define his or her life. Kierkegaard wrote that the individual person is infinite in depth, and ultimately, "subjectivity is truth" and "truth is subjectivity" ().