In April 1960, Martin Luther King Jr. sponsored a conference to discuss strategy. Students from the North and the South came together and formed the (SNCC). Early leaders included and . The (CORE) was a northern group of students led by , which also endorsed direct action. These groups became the grassroots organizers of future sit-ins at lunch counters, wade-ins at segregated swimming pools, and pray-ins at white-only churches.
Photo provided by Pexels
Chafe, William Henry. . New York: Oxford University Press, 1980. This description of the Civil Rights Movement in Greensboro gives the background of the sit-ins, as well as a description of the events of 1960.
Owings, Alison. . Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002. The chapter on pages 37-48 is titled “Irma Jean Edwards Deals with the Greensboro Sit-ins at Woolworths.”
Sieber, H.A. . Greensboro: Project Homestead, 1995.
This brief summary, illustrated by photographs and drawings, emphasizes the role of the Bennett College students in the sit-ins.
Sieber, H.A. . Greensboro: Project Homestead, 1993. This book is similar to Sieber’s , but less detailed.
Wolff, Miles. . New York: Stein and Day, 1971. This is a detailed description of the Greensboro sit-ins. The later edition is entitled .
1960 was the year of the student-led lunch-counter sit-ins
Photo provided by Pexels
Data Sources: BURRIS, Greensboro Historical Museum, F.D. Bluford Library Archives, North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University, Lewis Brandon, Paul Gaston, Jack Moebes, Sit-In Movement, Inc. and International Civil Rights Center & Museum staff.
Sit-in movement: Sit-in movement, nonviolent movement of the U.S
A few Deep South towns do manage to build ongoing sit-in movements in 1960 — in South Carolina, & Augusta in Georgia, and Louisiana — but they are exceptions to the ruthless "Never in the heart of Dixie" resistance against any form of desegregation that typifies the Deep South.
civil rights era that began in Greensboro, North Carolina, in 1960
Eventually the students and CORE resume direct action, but the momentum built during the first week of sit-ins and King's call for civil disobedience has faded, the renewed demonstrations are intermittent and small-scale for the rest of 1960, accomplishing little.
Greensboro council approves $54 million for …
On Monday, students in Winston-Salem, N.C., and Durham, N.C., held sit-ins to demonstrate their solidarity with Greensboro students. Sit-in protests quickly followed in North Carolina cities such as Charlotte, Raleigh, Fayetteville and High Point. The movement also gained momentum and spread to Florida, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and even F.W. Woolworth stores in New York City.
October 19, 1960 – Martin Luther King Jr
For more information on the Atlanta Civil Rights Movement:
(Atlanta Higher Education)
(National Park Service)
Inspired by the , students at Howard University in Washington DC found the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG).