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Dr Wong Yao Wing Robert
Evidence of this contribution has been his leadership roles in a number of Hong Kong corporations including: Expert System Company Ltd., HealthAnswers Asia Pte. Ltd., Inno-tech Holdings Ltd., United Premier Medical Group Ltd., G-Suite Holdings Ltd. and his role in promoting Corporate Volunteering.

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Whatever their origins, Chinese students tend to have a semi-detached relationship to the mainstream of Chinese life in Manchester. They maintain their own groups and organisations, often uniting students with the same country of origin. The Chinese Students and Scholars Association is the official body for students from the PRC, with local chapters across the UK (including Manchester) and links to the Chinese Embassy. Hong Kong student societies draw membership from students from the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. Additionally, Chinese student societies attract ethnic Chinese members from the UK, the Chinese speaking Far East and elsewhere.


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However, urban and suburban areas, with their higher population densities, could support more such businesses. And when these numbers reached a critical mass this in turn created a demand for professional services including accountants and lawyers, Chinese supermarkets, community-oriented restaurants and culture and leisure services. Chinatowns formed, usually on an ad hoc basis in London, Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham and elsewhere to deliver these services and became business and social hubs for Chinese people living "above the shop" in the wider area.


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As with other minority communities, Chinese people in Britain tend to be younger than the host community. The influx of families to the UK in the 1960's led, by the 1980's, to a situation where over 50% of all Chinese people in the UK were under 30. The relative youth of the Chinese community in Manchester has also been reinforced by the large numbers of Chinese students in the city.

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A report on the Chinese community issued by the Runnymede Trust in 1986 commented: "The Chinese are not especially interested in influencing other people neither do they readily accept non-Chinese influences on themselves. They have a sense of identity which is absolutely confident but is in no way aggressive."

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A similar pattern is responsible for the comparatively small Chinese presence in the UK's cultural industries. The origins of most Chinese people in the UK are in the rural New Territories and South China. The aspirations of the first generation to settle here were focused on attaining economic security. To parents from this parochial background, the thought of children taking up careers in the arts promised neither respectability nor security. And the highly distributed nature of the Chinese community in the UK - with over 50% of people living outside major metropolitan districts - makes it harder for artistically inclined younger people to meet and inspire each other or create a milieu in which artistic creation and appreciation can flourish. In the light of this, the growing number of British Chinese artists working in various media should be taken as a tribute to the resilience of the people involved, as well as indicating that the outlook of the community as a whole may be changing.

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Traditionally, Chinese people have been under-represented in public and voluntary sector professions, with the possible exception of medicine. This began to change in the 1980's, with the appearance of grant funded organisations dedicated to the welfare of, and advocacy for, the Chinese community. However, there remains a distinct preference for business and professional occupations amongst British-born Chinese people.