For example, therapists can invite their clients to link the process of therapy with their socialization experiences. For a male client having difficulty expressing his emotions, it might be a perfect time to ask him to talk about where he learned about what was acceptable to share in the emotional realm. This might turn into a discussion about male gender roles, experiences he had in his family of origin, and what he learned from his peers. These questions might also offer some different kinds of answers as to why he has such a hard time responding to his partner (Englar-Carlson & Shepard, 2005).
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This entry first looked at feminist arguments against biologicaldeterminism and the claim that gender is socially constructed. Next,it examined feminist critiques of prevalent understandings of genderand sex, and the distinction itself. In response to these concerns,the final section looked at how a unified women's category could bearticulated for feminist political purposes and illustrated (at least)two things. First, that gender — or what it is to be awoman or a man — is still very much a live issue. Second, thatfeminists have not entirely given up the view that gender is aboutsocial factors and that it is (in some sense) distinct frombiological sex. The jury is still out on what the best, the mostuseful or (even) the correct definition of gender is. And somecontemporary feminists still find there to be value in the original1960s sex/gender distinction.
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Amiri Baraka's play Dutchman uses a dramatic interplay between the two lead characters, Lula and Clay, to grab the attention of the audience and to allow more focus to be placed on complex societal issues. The audacity of Lula's comments and her overt sexuality function to make audience attentive to her remarks and allow a larger societal image to materialize from her character. Clay's character combats the societal norm of the African-American man of the 1960's in responding to Lula's aggressive comments in a calm and polite manner, keeping the audience involved in his portrayal of the polite and politically correct black man. The audience becomes sensitive to Lula's attack on Clay and eagerly waits to hear his rebuttal. The dramatic effect of Lula's lies in the form of offensive assumptions and name-calling combined with Clay's passivity towards Lula's remarks function to make the audience think about society's misconceptions about race and gender.
The lies that the character of Lula creates are of such a wide variety from the merely absurd to amazingly ridiculous that the audience is continually engaged. After capturing the attention of the audience, the lies can become more than just dramatic and achieve their function of making the audience consider the underlying misconceptions of race and gender that the play addresses. We begin to know Lula through her vivid personality and the ability of her comments to swing back and forth from playful to inappropriate. Lula's character mixes sane and insane, and that makes it possible for her character to get the audience's attention with just one remark. In her introduction to Clay she states, "I lie a lot. It helps me to control the world. ? This is a classic example of how Baraka uses dramatic lies to bring more serious issues to light. The first sentence "I lie a lot, ? due to its blatant confession, immediately demands the attention of the audience. The question surroun