Nobel scientist Sir John Eccles said of the human mind that it was "a machine thata ghost can operate." Millions of people are opening uptheir minds to "ghosts" (unholy spirits) through altered states ofconsciousness. So what is an altered state of consciousness? According to John Ankerbergand John Weldon, it is "the deliberate cultivation of abnormal states ofconsciousness (states not normally experienced apart from a specific technique or programto develop them). In fact, "altered states may involve a large variety of subjects --everything from hypnosis and other trance states to possession states (as mediumism andshaminism) to altered states that are characteristically pathological (as in kundaliniarousal and shaminism), to direct visualization and imagery, lucid dreaming, drug-inducedstates of consciousness, meditation and bio-feedback-induced consciousness, and manyothers."
Finally, a possibility that has so far not been considered in theliterature is that abduction and Bayesianism do not so much work intandem—as they do on the above proposals—as operate indifferent modes of reasoning; the Bayesian and the explanationist arecharacters that feature in different plays, so to speak. It is widelyaccepted that sometimes we speak and think about our beliefs in acategorical manner, while at other times we speak and think about themin a graded way. It is far from clear how these different ways ofspeaking and thinking about beliefs—the epistemology of beliefand the epistemology of degrees of belief, to use Richard Foley’s(1992) terminology—are related to one another. In fact, it is anopen question whether there is any straightforward connection betweenthe two, or even whether there is a connection at all. Be that as itmay, given that the distinction is undeniable, it is a plausiblesuggestion that, just as there are different ways of talking andthinking about beliefs, there are different ways of talking andthinking about the revision of beliefs. In particular,abduction could well have its home in the epistemology of belief, andbe called upon whenever we reason about our beliefs in a categoricalmode, while at the same time Bayes’ rule could have its home in theepistemology of degrees of belief. Hard-nosed Bayesians may insistthat whatever reasoning goes on in the categorical mode musteventually be justifiable in Bayesian terms, but this presupposes theexistence of bridge principles connecting the epistemology of beliefwith the epistemology of degrees of belief—and, as mentioned,whether such principles exist is presently unclear.
MINDS :: Movement for the Intellectually Disabled of SIngapore
Open appraisals are carried out at the end of each year where staff performance will be discussed and graded. Each staff also has a budget of 40 training hours per year. MINDS encourages its staff to attend both inhouse and external training. It utilizes a e-system to track staff training hours.