With thebenefit of historical hindsight we can see how the Europeans could make inroads into the powerful empires of earlymodern Asia. The largest empire in South Asia, like China, neglected thethriving trade occurring at her shores. The capital of the Mughal Empire(1526-1858) was at Delhi, far north and inland from the seashores where theEuropeans made their first contacts, set up trading posts, and eventuallyconstructed defensive walls. Amazingly, the Mughal Empire, grand as it was, hadno navy. As a result, Europeans merchants quickly and easily dominated trade inthe Indian Ocean making huge profits by shuttling products between South Asia,Southeast Asia, and China.
On the central argument, as Younger indicates, The Business of War is an attempt to challenge the seemingly unshakeable hold that a basic model of ‘military revolution’ has gained in the thinking of most early modern historians who have not steeped themselves in recent debates about military technology and military cultures, territorial and organizational anomalies in waging war, or looked at ‘ground level’ studies of military administration. Although much of the case for such state-formation elsewhere – in studies of local government, fiscal and administrative institutions, and in the aims and scope of government – is being dismantled, the attraction of linking military change to centralization and bureaucracy in the state remains strong. If Business of War can provoke more critical thinking about the institutional and political contexts in which early modern war was waged, it will have made its contribution. The reviewer correctly points out that the material of the book is drawn from a wide range of secondary sources, and makes little direct use of primary source material. This was a decision made when planning and writing the book. Manuscript and printed sources could have been used more extensively to discuss aspects of military contracting, whether relating to the recruitment and financing of units, operational decision-making, or even French military exceptionalism, but that would have detracted from the central aim: using extant secondary work to argue that there are different ways of looking at the issues of military organization and the role of the state in early modern Europe. To argue from primary material rather than secondary studies would risk confirming the tacit opinion that the study of mercenaries and private contracting in this period was an antiquarian dead-end, of no real significance to the central direction of early modern history, and only to be pursued through special pleading via obscure archival sources.
Summary of Early Modern History; summary of ..
The extent of European imperialism in the Old World climbed steadily in the modern age, peaking ca. 1900. At this point, firm European domination had spread across most of the Old World, the only major exceptions being Turkey (the Ottoman Empire), Persia, and Japan. At its peak, the British Empire became the largest empire the world has ever known, at nearly a quarter of the Earth's land area. The Russian Empire became history's third-largest empire, behind the British and Mongol Empires.
What was time period of early modern ..
Janelle Greenberg, History. Medieval and early modern political and legal institutions of England and the European continent, concentrating in particular on the growth of common law, canon law, and Roman law as well as representative government.
History of Europe - The emergence of modern Europe, …
Greene (eds.), Preconditions of Revolutionin Early-Modern Europe (Baltimore, 1970)
Geoffrey Parker, Lesley Smith (eds.), The General Crisis of the SeventeenthCentury (Penguin, 1987)
Keith Michael Baker, Inventing the French Revolution (Cambridge, 1990)
Charles Tilly, European Revolutions 1492--1992 (Blackwell, 1993)
(2) FRANCERobin Briggs, Early Modern France 1560--1715 (Oxford, 1977)
The emergence of modern Europe, ..
Adam Shear, Religious Studies. Jewish intellectual and cultural history, particularly in early modern Italy and Western and Central Europe; the history of Jewish-Christian relations, the history of reading and writing and the transmission of learning in early modern Europe; the status of canonical and classical works in particular communities and their role in the formation of intellectual, cultural, and religious identities.
and cultural—of the early modern age
During the first decades of the Early Modern period, due to discoveries made by Portuguese explorers, Portugal acquired one of the earliest and most important European overseas empires. Over the course of three centuries, close links were established with Africa, America, and Asia in a dynamic move mediated by means of the sea. This was an epoch in which Portugal constituted a central player in great world transformations. Its dramatic opening to the wider world provoked deep changes at different levels inside the realm, from central political organization, in which the king and his court played a central role, to trade, society, and even the identity of Portugal and the self-perception of being Portuguese. Little affected by the religious break occasioned by Protestantism that shook central and northern Europe, though facing the challenge posed by the presence of a large group of Jewish descendants who were baptized forcibly in 1497, the kingdom embarked on its new course without cutting links with Europe, which some elites continued to view, until the late 18th century, as an inspiring intellectual, cultural, and artistic center. The leading role played by Portugal was marked by a hiatus between 1580 and 1640, a period during which, due to a dynastic crisis caused by the death of King Sebastian during a battle in North Africa, it was ruled by the Spanish Habsburg monarchy in an arrangement in which the country enjoyed a loose political autonomy. After 1640, with a new dynasty in charge, the kingdom faced severe difficulties, most especially until 1668. In the course of the 17th century when Portuguese overseas interests were attacked by the Dutch and the English, the center of the empire slowly moved from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic. This shift in geographic emphasis together with the discovery of diamonds and gold mines in Brazil led, by the end of the 17th century, to a period of economic growth that lasted until the first half of the 18th century. During this period, the Crown profited by reinforcing its power both internally and externally. Influenced by Enlightenment doctrines that were accompanied, simultaneously and paradoxically, by use of repressive methods, the government, after the earthquake that destroyed Lisbon in 1755, instituted deep reforms, which were were set up under the leadership of Carvalho e Melo (Marquis of Pombal), who gained the favor of the king as chief minister until 1777. The historiography on early modern Portugal is rich, particularly in works published by Portuguese authors after the 1970s. The following entries are limited to the most representative essays in each of the different topics: political history, Portuguese empire, diplomatic history, economic history, social history and welfare, cultural history, religious history, art history, and local history.