It is widely recognised that fluoride "therapy" for osteoporosis adds mass to bones but produces inferior bone -- at least seven studies found structural abnormalities or mineralization defects. In short, the biomechanical competence of the skeleton may be compromised because the tensile (elasticity) strength of bone is sacrificed. These studies not only show that fluoride may cause increased skeletal fragility (more non-vertebral fractures such as hip), but that it can lead to (another bone disease). The relevance to fluoridation is:
short-term high-dose fluoride studies show the same amount of fluoride accumulates in the bones of osteoporosis patients as would be found in some people who are chronically exposed to long-term "low" doses of fluoride (such as in fluoridated areas). People with renal insufficiency, for example, can incorporate four times more fluoride into bone than an average healthy individual and would therefore be more susceptible to the long-term effects of drinking "optimally" fluoridated water than the average individual (see , by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry).
When asking him what he thought about lowering the drinking age he answered, ?Yes, in conjunction with promoting greater education about drinking and higher penalties for DWI offences.?
Pro Lower Legal Drinking Age]:: ..
Despite the fact that many in society would agree that the legal drinking age should be lowered, it is difficult to make it happen because politically no one would be interested in supporting it for fear of losing votes.
The National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 (23 U.S.C
It is known that the legal age is twenty one, yet most eighteen year olds feel as if they are already twenty-one when they can go out and buy with their fake ID or drink at a bar.
§ 158) was passed by the United States Congress on July 17, 1984
1. Fewer 18-20-year-olds might be drinking, but those that do are drinking more in secret, as well as binge drinking.
2. 29 states already allow underage drinking on private premises if it is with parental consent.
3. 25 states allow for underage drinking if it is done for legal purposes.
4. Between 1970-1976, 30 states lowered their Minimum Legal Drinking Age (MLDA) from 21 to 18, 19, or 20.
5. The enactment of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act of 1984 prompted states to raise their legal age for purchase or public possession of alcohol to 21 or risk losing millions in federal highway funds.
6. The state of Illinois set the legal drinking age for women at 18 after the passing of the 21st Amendment in 1933. It was in place for over 40 years until the Supreme Court ruled that it was a violation of the Equal Protection Clause provided for in the 14th Amendment.
7. Traffic accidents and fatalities are most common among newly-legal drinkers, regardless of the drinking age.
8. There are fewer drunk driving traffic accidents and fatalities in many countries with a minimum drinking age of 18.
9. Since 1982, two years prior to the Uniform Drinking Age Act establishing an minimum drinking age of 21, a decline of drunk driving fatalities occurred across all age groups and demographic categories. The argument for 21 only is that younger age drunk driving accidents reduced by the largest margin of any other age demographic.
10. Underage drinking accounts for 17.5%, or $22.5 billion, of consumer spending for alcohol in the United States.
11. An estimated two of every 1,000 occasions of illegal drinking by youth under 21 results in an arrest, showing that it isn’t a high police priority to enforce the law.
12. In a 2002 meta-study of the legal drinking age and health and social problems, 72% of the studies that were reviewed found that there was no statistically significant relationship to the age of drinking and increased criminal behaviors or suicides despite claims that lowering the drinking age to 18 would increase them.
13. 10% of federal highway funding is directly tied into the drinking age that states have allowed.
14. By 1982, when drunk driving fatality statistics began to decrease, only 14 states still had a 21 only law on the books.
15. There are still 3 states in the US that do not treat the age of 18 as the age of majority.
16. Among drinkers only, 32% of under age compared to 24% of legal age are heavy drinkers.
17. The percentage of kids who cut class so that they can go drinking: 12%.
18. 28% of high school students admit to missing at least one class over the course of a year because they have a hangover.
Formal Outline- Drinking age | Casey Carpenter
As the statistics will show, lowering the drinking age isn’t as problematic as many might claim it to be. Will there be a potential increase in drunk driving accidents in the 18-20 age demographic? Most likely there will be. As countries with lower drinking ages have already proven, however, there is also a corresponding decrease in the accident rates in the 20-24 age demographic.