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Hitchcock’s film ‘Rear Window’ (1954) displays a perfect example of how the conventions of crime fiction can be appropriated to still involve the traditional features of crime.

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These devices created images of the underside of corrupt American urban life with disorientated, anxious and confused characters who had fallen into crime.
These cinematic techniques include:
the manipulation of lighting to create silhouette, shadows and a sense of mystery
shadows of cigarette smoke
unlit hallways
smoke-filled bars
lamps rather than overhead lighting
rain-slicked mean streets
neon lights
dark alleyways
action scenes full of sounds such as gunshots, screams, sirens, non-diegetic music to suggest danger, mystery and horror.
The Big Sleep (1946)
Howard Hawk's film adaption of Raymond Chandler's 1939 novel of the same name encapsulates the transcendence of the crime fiction genre through the intrinsic aspects of both film noir and traditional crime fiction genre.

History of crime fiction - Wikipedia

The text fuses the ambivalent tone of film noir with the morally righteous pursuit of justice of traditional crime fiction conventions.
The film is about the process of criminal investigation, not the results, chronicling private detective Phillip Marlowe's journey into the heart of crime, gambling, murder and blackmail - the underbelly of the genteel manners the rich in a corrupt city.

The Big Sleep as a Crime Fiction text
With understanding of the film, we as the audience can already identify the close relationship it has with the founding crime writing conventions that categorise the genre.

American History X (1998) - IMDb

The police force was established, and was often doubted for their incompetence, and hence the need for detectives.
Although crime stories have been told before this, American writer Edgar Allan Poe is credited for redefining the crime story through the introduction of the amateur detective, establishing the founding detective paradigm, or simple narrative framework.
"The expression of crime, followed by a solution - but not necessarily punishedment [remains] a comforting certitude in an uncertain world." P.D James
The Next Step - The Hard Boiled School & Film Noir
In the 1920s a new distinctive style of crime fiction emerged as writers strove to keep up with the contemporary mood.

With Edward Norton, Edward Furlong, Beverly D'Angelo, Jennifer Lien

Flash Pulp is an experiment in broadcasting fresh pulp stories in the modern age – three to ten minutes of fiction brought to you Monday, Wednesday and Friday evenings. Tales of zombies, murder, vixens, and the occult, all provided for free, and all culminating in a single overarching universe.


The film does make clear, however, thatthe authorities are doing little of value to investigate the crime,and that only the hero's personal commitment to tracking downthe criminals is offering any hope of their identification andpunishment.