Diseases Transmitted by Mosquitoes

As with the other mosquito-borne flaviviruses, treatment for uncomplicated Zika virus infection focuses on symptoms. No Zika virus vaccine exists; thus, prevention and control measures center on avoiding mosquito bites, reducing sexual transmission, and controlling the mosquito vector. Potentially effective methods of prevention that are focused on reducing infections among pregnant women include avoiding unnecessary travel to areas of ongoing Zika virus transmission, avoiding unprotected sexual contact with partners who are at risk for Zika virus infection, and using mosquito repellent, permethrin treatment for clothing, bed nets, window screens, and air conditioning. The most effective vector control relies on an integrated approach that involves elimination of mosquito breeding sites, application of larvicides, and application of insecticides to kill adult mosquitoes. However, each of these approaches has substantial limitations. Communities are often mobilized to reduce breeding sites, but this strategy often fails, in part because of inconsistent participation among households and the presence of cryptic breeding sites in modern urban settings. Dengue control programs make extensive use of peridomestic insecticide spraying during outbreaks, but little evidence supports its efficacy as a single control intervention. The application of larvicides and indoor residual spraying have been effective in some settings. Given these limitations, an integrated prevention and vector-control approach combined with timely detection of illness, communication of up-to-date and correct information, and development of a rapid response that involves the community are recommended.

This section will be limited in coverage to mosquito-borne viruses transmitted in ..

One case of Zika virus transmission occurred after a monkey bite in Indonesia, although mosquito-borne transmission could not be ruled out. Two infections in laboratories have been reported. A volunteer became infected after subcutaneous injection of infected mouse brain suspension. Transmission through breast milk has not been documented, although the breast milk of a woman who became symptomatic with Zika virus infection on the day of delivery contained infective Zika viral particles in high titer.

Mosquito Control - Bay County, Michigan

42. Diallo D, Sall AA, Diagne CT, et al. Zika virus emergence in mosquitoes in southeastern Senegal, 2011.  ;9:-

Some mosquitoes are vectors for diseases. This means they can transmit diseases from one human or animal to another. Typically, the diseases are caused byviruses or tiny parasites. For example, a mosquito that bites an infected human or animal can pick up a virus along with the blood meal. The mosquito and virusdo not harm one another but the virus reproduces inside the mosquito. Later, the mosquito can pass the viruses to other humans when biting them.

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In Africa, Zika virus exists in a sylvatic transmission cycle involving nonhuman primates and forest-dwelling species of aedes mosquitoes (). In Asia, a sylvatic transmission cycle has not yet been identified. Several mosquito species, primarily belonging to the stegomyia and diceromyia subgenera of aedes, including and are likely enzootic vectors in Africa and Asia.

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne arbovirus ..

In Africa, Zika virus circulates in a sylvatic transmission cycle between nonhuman primates and certain forest-dwelling species of aedes mosquitoes. In this setting, sporadic human infections may occur. In suburban and urban settings, Zika virus is transmitted in a human–mosquito–human transmission cycle, mostly involving mosquitoes.