The character for "study," , can also mean "teaching," "doctrine," "religion," etc., as discussed with the .
With the "six virtues," we get four that are the same as the "five virtues," with the substitution of "wisdom" for "knowledge" as in the "four principles," and a trade-off of "propriety" for "good faith." "Moderation" and "harmony" are new.
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I have heard that the heads of states or noble families do not worry over poverty but instead over equal distribution of wealth; they do not fret over underpopulation, but whether the people are insecure. Now, if there is equality in distribution there will be no poverty; if there is harmony in society there will be no underpopulation, and if there is security, there will be subversion. If it done like this, then if there are distant subjects who do not submit, you can attract them by cultivating refinement and virtue. Once they come, then you can give them security. Now You and Qiu, serving as advisors to your lord, have distant subjects who will not submit, and you are unable to attract them; the country is falling apart, and you can do nothing to preserve it. Yet you now plan military action within your own state. I am afraid that the trouble of the descendants of Ji lies not in Zhuanyu, but rather, within the confines of our own court.
The five virtues of confucianism ..
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The “freakishness” under discussion, then, lies in Confucianism and what the Japanese made of it. Certainly the modern mind, restless, striving, acquisitive, forward-looking, has little patience with the Confucian yearning for a long-past, long-lost Golden Age ruled by sages whose virtue alone made the people good, happy and prosperous. That thinking resonates no longer and isn’t likely ever to again. The trouble was, it rang a little false even under the early Tokugawa when neo-Confucianism was promoted as an official ideology.
CONFUCIAN BELIEFS | Facts and Details
They developed textual criticism of the Confucian Classics based on scientific methodology, using philology, history, and archaeology to reinforce their scholarship.
Seeing and hearing, thought and discussion, ..
A parallel case of differentiation between noun and adjective is something we also see in Greek, where , "beauty," is a matter of physical appearance alone, while , "beautiful," can mean noble or morally virtuous as well as physically appealing.
Confucianism: Confucianism, the ..
But of the translators use that view of the matter; and, indeed, if we have been observing the rites all along, then the virtue ought to have always been there, not something to be restored.
on "Confucianism Beliefs and Teachings"
The distinctions between means and ends, and between being and doing, result in the following structure of action, from beginning to middle to end, upon which much ethical terminology, and the basic forms of ethical theory (ethics of virtues, action, and consequences), are based.