He clarified much that was obscure in the determination of the exact tri-dimensional shapes of molecules, revealed the nature of the chemical bond, helped to create the field of molecular biology, proposed the concept and coined the term "molecular disease;" founded the science of ortho-molecular medicine, and was an activist for peace.Linus Carl Pauling was born in Portland, Oregon, on February 28, 1901.
On the day that the treaty went into force, the Nobel Prize Committee awarded Pauling its Peace Prize, describing him as "Linus Carl Pauling, who ever since 1946 has campaigned ceaselessly, not only against nuclear weapons tests, not only against the spread of these armaments, not only against their very use, but against all warfare as a means of solving international conflicts."
Many of Pauling's critics, including scientists who appreciated the contributions that he had made in chemistry, disagreed with his political positions and saw him as a naïve spokesman for Russian Communism.
Biography of Linus Pauling - ThoughtCo
Watson and Francis Crick for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and Pauling had come close to this structure himself -- though his proposed structure for DNA was not quite correct, most people conversant with his work believe that if Watson and Crick had not put their model when they did, Pauling would soon have reached the same conclusion.
In 1951, based on the structures of amino acids and peptides and the planarity of the peptide bond, Pauling and colleagues correctly proposed the alpha helix and beta sheet as the primary structural motifs in protein secondary structure.
Pauling also studied enzyme reactions and showed that sickle-cell anemia was caused by a single amino acid change in the hemoglobin molecule.
Change of direction of his life
World War II produced a profound change in Pauling's life.