In his first term as President (1885-1889), Grover Cleveland received the Statue of Liberty as a gift from France and oversaw the fall of Geronimo’s Apache bands, ending the Apache wars and cementing American expansion. Foreign policy-wise, Cleveland warned against the imperialistic tendencies of the Gilded Age and opposed Hawaiian annexation. Cleveland took great lengths to ban special economic favors and fight corruption during his first term; he vetoed bills to extend fraudulent pension benefits for Civil War veterans. He also signed the Interstate Commerce Act, the first piece of legislation to regulate railroads. An ardent defender of free trade, he would fight against Republican protectionists in Congress who sought to support industry with high tariffs. Unfortunately, this in conjunction with the notorious Murchison letter cost him the 1888 election to Benjamin Harrison of Indiana. Irish-Americans saw his free trade philosophy and the British ambassador to the United States’ tacit support as sacrilegious pro-Britain stances.
Father: Richard Falley Cleveland
Mother: Anne Neal Cleveland
Married: , on June 2, 1886
Children: Ruth Cleveland (1891-1904); Esther Cleveland (1893-1980); Marion Cleveland (1895-1977); Richard Folsom Cleveland (1897-1974); Francis Grover Cleveland (1903-1995)
Grover Cleveland (1837-1908), who served as the 22nd and 24th U.S
After losing to Benjamin Harrison in 1888, the passage of the protectionist McKinley Tariff thrust Grover Cleveland back into power in 1892. Unfortunately, his second term got off to a rocky start after the Panic of 1893. He repealed the inflation-causing Sherman Silver Purchase Act and maintained the Treasury’s gold reserve as a backing for currency. He also sent federal troops to enforce an injunction when Chicago railroad workers went on strike. His bluntness also came through when he enforced the Monroe Doctrine and forced Great Britain to accept an arbitration of a disputed boundary in Venezuela.