Where Plato regarded images as irremediably deceptive, Aristotle, although he certainly recognized their potential for leading us astray (De Anima 428a-b), saw them as playing an essential and central role in human cognition, one closely akin to that played by the more generic notion of mental representation in contemporary cognitive science. Indeed, he developed what amounts to the first comprehensive cognitive theory, a theory that has been enormously influential over the subsequent ages, and continues (mostly indirectly) to shape much scientific and philosophical thought about the mind even today. He was clearly aware of, and very possibly influenced by, the mnemonic imagery techniques in use in Greece (), to which he alludes in at least four passages in his extant writings (Topica 163b28, De Anima 427b18, De Memoria 452a12–16, De Insomniis 458b20–22).
Photo provided by Flickr
, The Master said, , "He who exercises government by means of virtue," , "may be compared to the North Star," , "which keeps its place," , "and all the stars bow towards it."A vivid image for how Confucius sees proper government as the application of moral force, that the prince basically need only be possessed of virtue, , himself -- ruling by setting a good example -- although Legge seems to think, "We must be content to accept the vague utterance without minutely determining its meaning." But the meaning, although metaphorical, is consistent with all the rest of Confucian politics, where setting a good example will be the effective practice of , "Not Doing," as we see explicitly at .
A summary of the major ideas of the philosophy of Aristotle
Photo provided by Flickr
The pre-Socratic philosophers (Heraclitus, Empedocles, Parmenides, Zeno) followed with their formulations and speculations, and in the wings were three of history's most prodigious philosophical minds (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle).
Confucius and Socrates Compared - Sanderson Beck
Well?" , "Confucius answered, "Sir, in conducting government, why use killing?" , "Let your desire be for what is good, and the people will be good." , "The virtue of the superior man is like wind.
Philosophy - definition of philosophy by The Free …
Thus, the saying at XVII:25 raises substantive issues about the attitude of Confucius towards and about the very meaning of the passage for translation, and about technical issues of semantic alteration of characters with pronunciaton and intonation and changes in tone simply from their environment in speech.
Mental Imagery (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Finally, Lee & Smith say "the rules of fate." While simplicity of translation is virtue, especially for the succinct statements of Confucius, it is not possible to retain the dual senses of with the choices the translators have made.