She has also written various articles about different things dealing with women and their health Regina Casper first experienced anorexia nervosa while she was in medical school....
An individual with bulimia nervosa engages in binge eating behaviours and then attempts to compensate for the excessive food intake by purging. Individuals with bulimia nervosa are usually embarrassed about their eating problems and often feel out of control; therefore, they binge as inconspicuously as possible. The individual typically experiences anxiety, depression, and negative affect, using body weight and shape as the main measure of their self-worth. Self-esteem is low. The individual may have scars on the surface of their hand from contact with the teeth while pushing fingers down their throat to induce vomiting. Frequent, repeated purging may lead to increased dental cavities and loss of dental enamel (from the acid in the vomit), and potential fluid and electrolyte abnormalities may cause serious medical complications (rarely even death). Fatigue is common due to malnutrition and electrolyte imbalances. Irregular menstruation or amenorrhea may be present.
Facts, Signs and Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa – …
Treatment of bulimia nervosa usually involves a combination of individual therapy, family therapy, behaviour modification and nutritional rehabilitation. Cognitive-behavioural therapy focuses on self-monitoring of eating and purging behaviours and changing the thought pattern that leads the individual to binge and purge. Medication (, antidepressants, antianxiety medication) may also be prescribed, particularly if the individual is experiencing depression or anxiety. If the bulimia nervosa is severe, the individual may have to be admitted to an eating disorders treatment program. Poor prognosis has been found to be associated with premorbid and paternal obesity, a history of substance misuse, and presence of a personality disorder.,
Eating with your Anorexic - Eating disorders
Treatment generally involves a comprehensive approach: individual therapy, family therapy, behaviour modification, and nutritional rehabilitation, with weight gain as the ultimate goal. Antidepressants may be helpful if the individual is depressed. Parents are considered a vital part of the treatment process. Inpatient treatment may be necessary to restore weight and address physiological sequelae of starvation (, fluid and electrolyte imbalances), particularly if the individual is more than 25% below ideal body weight or has been ill for more than two years. Relapse rates are approximately 35%., Self-directedness (, have a clear sense of one's self and one's goals) is associated with better outcomes in individuals with anorexia nervosa.
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No specific cause of anorexia nervosa has been identified; it is likely that the causes of anorexia nervosa are due to multiple factors. There is increased risk among first-degree biological relatives of individuals with anorexia nervosa,, suggesting a genetic component. Society's views of thinness may also contribute. Personality variables (, perfectionism) may influence or be a consequence of anorexia nervosa. Prognosis is improved with early detection and intervention. Approximately half of those who fully develop the symptoms of anorexia nervosa recover within five years; an estimated 5% to 20% will eventually die from complications related to anorexia nervosa., The malnutrition that results from anorexia denies the body of essential nutrients it needs to function normally, and therefore it slows down its processes to conserve energy. Menarche may be delayed in prepubertal females. Starvation can also affect most major organ systems. Estrogen levels are low. Constipation, abdominal pain, lethargy, bradycardia, and cold intolerance are also experienced. Electrolyte imbalance is one of the most dangerous sequelae. Over time, reproductive problems, osteoporosis, continued low BMI, and major depression may arise. Death may result due to suicide, starvation, or electrolyte imbalances.
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An individual diagnosed with anorexia nervosa is extremely fearful of becoming fat and therefore restricts their total food intake, often so much that they consume only a few foods. Malnourishment caused by (semi-) starvation may result in muscle wasting, dehydration, abdominal pain, amenorrhea, constipation, cold intolerance, cardiac arrhythmias, impaired renal function, and osteoporosis. Lethargy and fatigue are common, also due to lack of food/energy intake; self esteem levels are low; depression, anxiety, and irritability are experienced. Cognitive deficits are also common with starvation. The individual may eventually become socially withdrawn and may experience somatic/sexual dysfunction, particularly in severely underweight individuals. Many individuals with anorexia nervosa are in denial of their illness; often medical attention is sought by concerned family members.