IELTS Writing Task 2: 'animal testing' essay - ielts …

Two recent reports describing the successful testing of experimental ZIKV vaccines in animal models — one by Pardi et al. and another by Richner et al. — are welcome news. Both groups engineered messenger RNAs (mRNAs) with sequences encoding the ZIKV precursor membrane (prM) glycoprotein and envelope (E) glycoprotein. The E protein is critical to viral attachment, entry, and replication in the infected host (), which makes it a rational vaccine target. Neutralizing antibodies directed against the E protein have been identified as correlates of protection for vaccines directed against other flaviviruses, such as the Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever, and tickborne encephalitis viruses.

Except for severely limited medical research, animal testing should be outlawed.

Animal experiments are not used to show that drugs are safe and effective in human beings - they cannot do that. Instead, they are used to help decide whether a particular drug should be tested on people.

Save the Animals: Stop Animal Testing - Lone Star College

Cosmetic companies use animal tests to protect themselves against possible lawsuits....

With opinions on this topic based on research and tests, opposers to animals having rights over their life are not taking into consideration that animals live just like us humans but we cannot physically communicate with them.

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However, many people believe that animal testing is justified because the animals are sacrificed to make products safer for human use and consumption. The problem with this reasoning is that the animals' safety, well-being, and quality of life is generally not a consideration. Experimental animals are virtually tortured to death, and all of these tests are done in the interest of human welfare, without any thought to how the animals are treated. Others respond that animals themselves benefit from animal research. Yet in an article entitled "Is Your Experiment Really Necessary?" Sheila Silcock, a research consultant for the RSPCA, states: "Animals may themselves be the beneficiaries of animal experiments. But the value we place on the quality of their lives is determined by their perceived value to humans" (34). Making human's lives better should not be justification for torturing and exploiting animals. The value that humans place on their own lives should be extended to the lives of animals as well.

Zika Virus Vaccines — A Full Field and Looking for the Closers

Founded in November 1993, by Angela Roberts and Lynn Williamson, and based in Sheffield, England, Uncaged campaigned against animal experiments and in particular against xenotransplantation (animal to human transplants). In 1994 we launched the global boycott of animal testing company Procter & Gamble. We campaigned for democratic action on animal issues through the political system. Fifty years after the Declaration of Human Rights was ratified Uncaged launched International Animal Rights Day in 1998 as a focus for our Universal Declaration of Animal Rights.

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Still other people think that animal testing is acceptable because animals are lower species than humans and therefore have no rights. These individuals feel that animals have no rights because they lack the capacity to understand or to knowingly exercise these rights. However, animal experimentation in medical research and cosmetics testing cannot be justified on the basis that animals are lower on the evolutionary chart than humans since animals resemble humans in so many ways. Many animals, especially the higher mammalian species, possess internal systems and organs that are identical to the structures and functions of human internal organs. Also, animals have feelings, thoughts, goals, needs, and desires that are similar to human functions and capacities, and these similarities should be respected, not exploited, because of the selfishness of humans. Tom Regan asserts that "animals are subjects of a life just as human beings are, and a subject of a life has inherent value. They are . . . ends in themselves" (qtd. in Orlans 26). Therefore, animals' lives should be respected because they have an inherent right to be treated with dignity. The harm that is committed against animals should not be minimized because they are not considered to be "human."