Attitudes and Gender Schemas Cultural myths about violence, gender scripts and roles, sexual scripts and roles, and male entitlements are represented at the individual level as attitudes and gender schemas. These hypothetical entities are expectancies that give meaning to and may even bias interpretation of ongoing experience, as well as provide a structure for the range of possible responses. Acceptance of beliefs that have been shown to foster rape has been demonstrated among a variety of Americans, including typical citizens, police officers, and judges (Field, 1978; Burt, 1980; Mahoney et al., 1986). Once a violence-supportive schema about women has developed, men are more likely to misinterpret ambiguous evidence as confirming their beliefs (Abbey, 1991). Sexu-
saults are very similar (Torres, 1991; Wyatt, 1992). However, the same act can have very different meanings depending on many features that shape perceptions and behavior, including the age of the victim, her relationship with the perpetrator, culture, social class, sexual orientation, previous history of violence, perceived intent of the violence, and perceived causes and effects of the violence (Murphy and O'Leary, 1994). Victims from oppressed racial, ethnic, or cultural groups or who are lesbian or bisexual face additional challenges that may influence their strategies and resources for recovery (Brown and Root, 1990; Sue and Sue, 1990; Wyatt, 1992; Garnets and Kimmel, 1993; Schriver, 1995). Most studies of the consequences of violence look at impairments; only a few studies examine resilience and strengths as protectors against untoward outcomes or as alternative results to impairment (Gilfus, 1995).
English Language Arts Standards » Language » Grade 9 …
Athletic teams also may socialize children to behavior that is supportive of violence. For example, male athletes may be spurred to greater aggressive efforts by coaches who deride them as "girls." Participation in revenue-producing sports at the collegiate level was found to be a significant predictor of sexual aggression among college students (Koss and Gaines, 1993). It is possible that team sports, particularly revenue-producing sports, attract young men who are already aggressive. Whether team sports encourage aggressive behavior or simply reinforce already existing aggressive tendencies remains to be determined. In either case, it appears that participation in team sports is a risk factor for sexual aggression.
Introduction Domestic violence has been a big problem in the world
Parents can also become emotionally involved, and in some cases, lose proper perspective when they begin to see their young athlete as an investment. According to Murphy (1999), instead of regarding sports as a potentially fun or healthy activity for their children, some parents view athletics as a means of achieving fame, glory or material rewards. In many instances, the goal can be a college scholarship or professional contract. But even if a child appears to be a gifted athlete, the odds are remote.
Domestic violence is a problem that ruins families everywhere
As the gatekeepers of public park facilities, recreation professionals have a critical role in ensuring that the highest standards of conduct are upheld at youth sporting events. Beyond the moral imperative, youth sports administrators have a legal duty to ensure that the activity is conducted in a safe manner. To the extent that spectator violence and injury arises as a result of the administrator's negligence, then the sponsoring agency or township could be named in a subsequent lawsuit.
Reframing the ‘Violence’ of Mixed Martial Arts: ..
VOLUME 19, NUMBER 3
The Importance of Satisfaction in Relation to Gastronomic Tourism Development 261
José M. Prat Forga and Gemma Cànoves Valiente
Destination Loyalty as a Consequence of Satisfaction and Switching Barriers 273
Vo Van Can
Visitor Satisfaction and Place Attachment in National Parks 287
Haywantee Ramkissoon, Liam David Graham Smith, and Sarah Kneebone
A Conjoint Approach in Estimating the Importance of Urban Forests Versus Other Major Tourism Attractions in Urban Tourism Destinations: Insights From Washington, DC 301
Rogelio T. Andrada II, Jinyang Deng, Chad Pierskalla, and John Brooks
External Shocks and Tourist Arrivals to Cambodia 311
A. S. M. Sohel Azad, Vannarith Chheang, and Amirul Ahsan
Conceptualization and Measurement of Dimensionality of Place Attachment 323
Ning (Chris) Chen, Larry Dwyer, and Tracey Firth
Forecasting the City Hotel Market 339
Prior Experience and Destination Advertising Response 351
Yeongbae Choe, Jason L. Stienmetz, and Daniel R. Fesenmaier
Issues and Impacts of Internet Gambling: The Case of Australia 361
Timothy Jeonglyeol Lee and Woo-Hee Byun
Measuring Wellness-Related Lifestyles for Local Tourists in Taiwan 369
Kaung-Hwa Chen, Feng-Hsiang Chang, and Ke-Xin Tung
The Affective–Psychological Process of Festival Visitor Loyalty Formation 377
Jenny (Jiyeon) Lee and Gerard T. Kyle
Purchasing Leisure Travel Online: An Analysis of Russian Internet Users’ Intentions 383
Stefanie N. Böck, Katharina G. Skoupy, Varvara Solovyeva, and Roman Egger
REVIEWS SECTION 391
Contemporary Tourist Experience: Concepts and Consequences (Richard Sharpley and Philip R. Stone, Editors) 393