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The information on the frequency of IM had the previously mentioned limitations and some assumptions had to be made in order to include all of the countries in the analysis, since not all the reports presented data in the same format. Seven studies did not provide information on the frequency of IM in -infected subjects. They were therefore included in the ecological analysis with the assumption either that the overall prevalence of IM was the same as that among the infected (Egypt, Ireland and United Kingdom), or that all IM cases had occurred within the group of infected subjects (Gambia, Nigeria, Argentina and Iran). This seemed a reasonable and conservative option, since prevalence was underestimated in the former group (which includes 2 countries with high cigarette availability and a low or moderate IM prevalence) and overestimated in the latter (which includes three countries with a low IM prevalence and low cigarette availability). If the true figures had been used, the correlation would probably have been stronger. Furthermore, 5 of these studies were conducted in countries with a predictably high prevalence of infection, so the error in our procedure was probably low. In sensitivity analysis, the exclusion of these 7 studies reduced the variability in exposure to tobacco and also the frequency of the outcome, compromising the yield of the ecological study and resulting in a correlation coefficient of 0.36 (23% lower than that observed in the main analysis). However, we computed correlation coefficients for 11 subgroups of studies with methodological characteristics that would favour the validity of our study and obtained similar results for most of the different inclusion criteria considered. The sensitivity analysis supported the robustness of our results, when considering a small number of countries providing prevalence estimates for IM.

I will then discuss the design of the article and how the findings were analyzed.

The tobacco estimates used related to the period 1990-1992 and assumed a lag between exposure and the onset of IM ranging from 5 to 15 years. We have, however, also included in the analysis studies published between 1996 and 2006, which probably refer to surveys performed a few years earlier. The lag time considered in our study is probably of 5 to 10 years on average. Our decision to opt for a time lag as short as 5 years, less than would normally be considered if the outcome was cancer, was based on the fact that our study estimates the association between smoking and a precancerous lesion, which would be expected to appear several years before the development of gastric cancer.


Stock Market Insights | Seeking Alpha

This article is a prime example of how the economy affects our lives and its impact on human behavior.

The following analysis of Keegan’s article “The Best New Idea in Business” provides a SWOT analysis of Zipcar, which illustrated the factors affecting the firm’s rapid growth.


Language Analysis - Year 10 english NHS

The following essay it is going to focus in a critique of a qualitative journal article by giving its strengths and weakness, critical appraisal it is going to be done with support from different references and frameworks relevant to a qualitative study....

How is the language being used to persuade readers to agree?

The corpus/language analyses carried out also show Guccifer 2.0's communications lacks a subtle trait that appears to be present in Flood's writing elsewhere. It seems that it was likely somebody else taking care of communicating and likely managing the overall operation.

Business Analysis Articles - Modern Analyst

It's clear from the above (as well as an analysis of a much larger corpus of Guccifer's words that I have compiled - see below) that he habitually uses definite articles, even when communicating in a live chat with Lorenzo Franceschi-Bicchierai of Vice's Motherboard, he rarely fails to include them. - The amount of instances where his definite and indefinite articles are correctly used (when they are used) is around 96%. - In other words, while he mangles English language selectively, he doesn't do it in a way that is consistent or in the way that is expected from those whose native language is one lacking definite and indefinite articles (such as is true with Russian language).

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Anyone critically analysing the nature of Guccifer2.0 can see enough to identify whom he was most likely was or was serving through his activities online. - His lack of credibility and the inevitability of his Clinton Foundation server hack 'take' being exposed as nonsense makes it clear that Guccifer2.0 was a fraudulent construct intended to counter the leaks and try to take-down the credibility of Wikileaks as collaterol in the self-destruction of it's own reputation.